SHIPBUILDING — the industry of the heavy industry making construction and repair of vessels of all appointments, and also release of spare parts for them.
Treat the basic technological processes of modern S.: the assembly of separate elements of the vessel and installation of equipment made, as a rule, in the enclosed space and the subsequent completion of the vessel afloat. The main work rooms of shipbuilding plant — case, boiler, machine-assembling, diesel, pipeline, tool, woodworking, dock.
The page is the complex industry of the national economy, in a cut the most modern technological processes are applied. Electric welding — the most important element of an assembly cycle, is carried out in assembly and welding workshops and directly on the vessel. Main types of welding in S. — manual arc, semi-automatic and automatic welding (see) under a layer of gumboil, welding in the environment of inert gases (generally in the environment of carbon dioxide and to a lesser extent — argon and helium).
At the first stages of construction of the vessel of work are carried out in workshops or in the open air. In process of readiness of the vessel jobs in the vessel (in compartments, tanks, double-bottom spaces, a hold etc.) become hardly accessible that defines an originality of working conditions.
Feature of production — influence on an organism of workers of a microclimate during the work on an open building berth and in dock. In the southern districts as a result of action of solar radiation metallic surfaces of the vessel heat up to 60 ° that can increase air temperature in the closed rooms to 49 — 53 °. Strong winds and fluctuations of relative humidity of air also create premises for development of thermal discomfort. Difficulty of ensuring effective ventilation of the closed spaces forces to use individual protection equipment of a respiratory organs, eyes and skin.
During the welding the air environment is polluted by a finely divided welding aerosol, vapors of manganese, hydrogen fluoride, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitric oxides and other substances in the concentration which are quite often exceeding marginal in tens of times; welders in workplaces are affected by also radiant heat, infrared and ultra-violet radiations. Level of influence of the specified adverse production factors considerably increases during the welding in the closed rooms and consistently decreases upon transition from manual welding to semi-automatic and automatic welding under a layer of gumboil, during the welding in the environment of inert gases, and also during the use of not fusible tungsten electrodes instead of fusible steel. Pollution of the air environment happens also during the grinding and cleanup works in the course of gas cutting of metals, at a cut in air the dust containing compounds of manganese, copper, zinc, lead in this connection chances of copper and foundry fever is emitted (see. Foundry fever).
Carrying out painting works is connected with considerable pollution of the air environment toxic components of paints and varnishes, especially at pulverization coloring. During the work with plastic the air environment, open surfaces of a body and overalls can become soiled styrene (see), at mekhanich. to processing of fibreglasses air becomes soiled dust of plastic and fiber glasses.
At assembly of vessels and ship designs apply more than 70 types of various pneumatic tools (grinding, drilling, rubilno-stamping, emery, gaykoverta, etc. preferential rotary and shock action, weighing from 0,44 to 35 kg) demanding considerable static effort for their deduction. The specified tool is a source of the local vibration (see) exceeding marginal levels in 1V2 — 2V2 of time, and noise (see) with a maximum in the field of high and average frequencies, considerably surpassing marginal levels during the work in the closed rooms. Action of these factors is aggravated with the high parameters of vibration of ship designs exceeding marginal levels of tens of times. Insufficient height of rooms (from 60 to 112 cm) causes inconvenience of a working pose (lying on a back and a stomach, being kneeling, cards, in the bent situation) that leads to an overstrain of a musculoskeletal system. Forced contact with heated or cold, seasonally, metallic surfaces of the vessel can lead to cooling (see Cooling of an organism) or to overheating of an organism (see). Low labor productivity during the drawing coverings a brush is the reason of long stay in a forced pose in a zone of coloring that can promote development of diseases of a musculoskeletal system.
Among working main professions the highest incidence with temporary disability is revealed at coppersmiths, korpusnik, ship repair mechanics and painters. From hron. diseases are most widespread pathology of a cardiovascular and nervous system, went. - kish. path and JIOP bodies.
Owing to influence of harmful production factors at welders a pneumoconiosis sometimes is registered (see. Pneumoconiosis ), intoxications manganese (see. Manganese ), carbon monoxide (see. Carbon monoxide ) and other substances, an electroophthalmia (see. Ophthalmia ), thermal burns of a body (see Burns).
At the workers occupied on assembly of ship designs, especially cutters is more rare at shipwrights and painters, development of a polyneuritis (see) upper extremities, dystrophic processes in elbow joints, functional frustration of c is possible. N of page, an idiopathic hypertensia (see), and also professional relative deafness (see. Relative deafness ), a vibration disease (see. A vibration disease), deforkhmiruyushchy arthrosis (see Arthroses).
Influence of solvents, pigments and other toxic components can lead to professional poisonings (see) and to the diseases which are characterized by frustration of a nervous system, changes of blood and internals, irritation of skin and mucous membranes of upper respiratory tracts and eyes (see Paintings, Solvents).
Preventive actions for improvement of working conditions in S. shall have complex character. The important direction is creation of new automatic and semi-automatic technological processes, devices and the equipment with distance steering (automatic welding machines, cleanup and painting onboard semiautomatic devices, bottom machines, etc.); implementation of new types of devices of hydrospray of coverings — «Octopus», «Ruff», Kalmar, «Tone», BR, BR-VD, «Torch», «Beam»; modernization of rubilny hammers etc. Replacement of high toxic substances with less toxic analogs is of great importance: restriction of use of lead pigments and replacement their zinc, titanic, etc.; replacement of the aromatic hydrocarbons applied as organic solvents, solvent-naftom; implementation of aqueous emulsion inks like E-VA-27, the alkyd paints of the PF-218 XC type for coloring of an inner surface of cabins, creation of new besstirolny polyester resinss of the NPS-609-21M and NPS-609-22M brands for construction of vessels from fibreglass. Perspective of development of painting works in S. is transition to hydrospray of paints and varnishes, at Krom pollution of the air environment in comparison with a pulverization method can decrease by 10 — 20 times. Pulverization putting the paints and varnishes containing compounds of lead, antimony, arsenic, mercury, copper, chrome, epoxies, a coal varnish, chlorinated hydrocarbons and methanol, perkhlorvini-lovy, styrene and phenolic resins is forbidden. The essential moments in improvement of working conditions should be considered implementation of the electrodes containing the lowered amount of manganese, universal electrodes of ANO-7 instead of UONI-13, rutile electrodes and gumboils of the EN T-5 and ENT-7 brands; use of a special-wire of the EP-245 brand (0,9 — 1,2% of Megapixel) and EP-589 (2% of Megapixel) instead of a wire of the EP-521 brand (6% of Megapixel); creation of low-toxic welding gumboils instead of gumboil of OSTs-45.
A component of the comprehensive program of prevention is the device of effective ventilation (see Ventilation). During the welding and coloring of large-size designs installation of the soaking-up ventilating panels located on lifting fulcrum arrangements is reasonable. The easy small-size ventilating suctions combined in a uniform design with the working tool are developed for work in the closed rooms.
At impossibility of achievement a gigabyte. standards use of individual protection equipment of a respiratory organs, hearing, eyes and skin — antidust respirators of ShB-1 «Petal», «Aster-2» (see Respirators), the isolating respiratory devices with forced feed of air, antinoise inserts (see Earplugs), antiphons (see Protivoshuma), safety spectacles (see), protective dermatological agents (see Pastes protective), film gloves from polyvinyl alcohol and ftorsopo-limerny latex, overalls from dustproof fabrics and other means is obligatory (see Clothes special).
As prevention of intoxications compounds of lead, chrome, manganese, fluorine and adverse influence of noise on an organism of working vitaminization of food vitamins A, C, B2, B6, PP is reasonable. Glutaminic to - that can serve as prophylactic of toxic defeats of a nervous system, sulfur-containing amino acids — to interfere with harmful effect of benzene, compounds of arsenic, mercury, lead, and also development of toxic hepatitises. Administration of pectins, extracts of onions and garlic is shown at threat of intoxication of heavy metals.
In a legislative order in a number of professions, and also at nek-ry works with heavy and harmful working conditions use of work of women is forbidden (manual gazo-and electric welding in the closed tanks; works of the driller, pneumatics performing work as the pneumotool transferring vibration to hands of working; paintings and works on purification of old paint in tanks, thermal boxes and other hardly accessible sites of vessels, etc.).
Carrying out preliminary (is important at revenues to work) and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination, Professional selection).
Bibliography: Ivannikova T. F. and F and and l to about in with to and I am T. A. Bezopasnost of work during the drawing paint coatings in mechanical engineering, M., 1981; To about r yu to and e in Yu. S. Production sanitation in shipbuilding, L., 1969; Sandratskaya S. E. Questions of hygiene and toxicology at use of paints and varnishes in shipbuilding and ship repair, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 1, page 40, 1970, bibliogr.; Sh t of e p e N-g and r R. Ya c. Occupational health in productions on drawing paint coatings, M., 1974.
Yu. M. Hundred, S.E. Sandratskaya.