SHERRINGTON Charlz

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SHYORRINGTON Charlz (Sherrington Charles Scott, 1859 — 1952) is the English physiologist, the member (1893) and the president (1920 — 1925) London royal about-va, the member correspondent. St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1915), Nobel Prize laureate

(1932).

Got medical education in Edinburgh (1881) and the Cambridge (1885) high fur boots. During 1885 — 1887 it was improved in C. Golgi, S. Ra-mon-i-Kakhal, R. Koch, K. Foyt's laboratories, etc. where received preparation on physiology, pathology and morphology. In 1885 — 1886 participated in fight against epidemic of cholera in Spain and Italy. From 1887 to 1891 was the assistant to department of physiology Cambridge un-that, at the same time worked in Saint Foma's hospital in London. In 1891 — 1895 professor Veterinarnogo in-that at London un-those. Since 1895 professor of physiology Liverpool un-that, and from 1913 to 1935 professor of department of physiology Oxford un-that.

Ch. Sherrington is the author of St. 300 scientific works. The most important researches of Ch. Sherrington are devoted to physiology of c. N of page. He studied a phenomenon of a cerebrate rigidity (see the Cerebrate rigidity, Detsereb the radio set), mechanisms of development of spinal shock. It described the principle of a reciprocal innervation of antagonistic muscles, existence of an afferent innervation of muscles is proved (see Retsiproknost). Ch. Sherrington installed a role of supraspinal structures in mechanisms of maintenance of a pose and providing locomotion. It entered a concept about a synapse (see), its role in mechanisms of excitement and braking of the nervous cells providing reflex acts is defined. Ch. Sherrington possesses the doctrine about receptive fields, division of receptors (see) on exteroceptors (see Exteroception), interoceptors (see Interoception) and nponpi of an otsep-Torah (see). On the basis of studying of mechanisms of coordination of reflex arcs within a spinal cord he formulated one of philosophy of work of a nervous system — the principle of the general way, having shown quantitative superiority of afferent conduction paths over efferent (see the Reflex, the Reflex theory). It entered a concept about integrative activity of a nervous system.

Ch. Sherrington opening, his scientific generalizations played an important role in development of experimental and clinical neurology, enriched physiology with knowledge of mechanisms of reflex activity of an organism. The Nobel Prize

of Ch. Sherrington was conferred (together with E. Adrian) for opening of laws of activity of nerve fibrils. In philosophical works and lectures of the last years devoted to the highest functions of a brain,

Ch. Sherrington denies cognoscibility of mental activity.

Ch. Sherrington was a member and the honorary member of many English and international scientific about-in, the Journal of Physiology editor. Works: Correlation of reflexes and the principle of common path, Nature (Lond.), v. 70, p. 460, 1904; On reciprocal innervation of antagonistic muscles, Proc. Roy. Soc. B, v. 76 B, p. 160, 1905; Integrative action of the nervous system, New Haven — L., 1906; The brain and its mechanism, Cambridge, 1933; Reflex activity of a spinal cord, the lane with English, M. — L., 1935; Integrative activity

of a nervous system, the lane with English, L., 1969.

Bibliography: Ayrapetyants E

and Batuyev A. Great work

of Ch. S. Sherrington, in book: The Sherring

Ch. Integrativnaya' tone is deit. nervn. sist., page 5, L., 1969; E with with 1 e s J. Page of a. Gibson W. Page of Sherrington, his life a thought,

V., 1979; Fulton J. F. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857 — 1952), J. Neurophysiol., v. 15, p. 167, 1952, bibliogr.

V. G. Zilov.

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