SHATERNIKOV Mikhail Nikolaevich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SHATYORNIKOV Mikhail Nikolaevich (1870 — 1939) is the Soviet physiologist, zasl. the scientist of RSFSR (1935), one of founders of domestic science about food.

Ended in 1896 medical f-t Moscow un-that. From 1896 to 1900 the supernumerary assistant to department of physiology Moscow un-that, headed by I. M. Sechenov. From 1900 to 1902 it was improved in Germany at

K. Foyt, J. Kries, etc.

From 1902 to 1911 the privatdozent

of department of physiology Moscow un-that. In 1903 headed laboratory of zoophysiology of natural department physical and mathematical f-that the High female courses, and from 1906 to 1925 the manager

gave department of physiology medical f-that the High female courses (nowadays the 2nd MMI), at the same time worked at department of physiology Moscow un-that till 1911 when in protest at reactionary reforms of the minister of education of JI. A. Kasso among progressive domestic scientists (K. A. Timiryazev, V. P. Serbian, G. I. Rosso-limo, P. B. Gannushkin, etc.) left Moscow un-t. From 1908 to 1930 worked in Commercial in-those (in the subsequent Moscow with in-t of the national economy of G. V. Plekhanov) the teacher, and then professor of department of physiology. From 1917 to 1939 professor, the department chair of physiology medical f-that Moscow un-that (since 1930 the 1st MMI). Since 1918 M. N. Shaternikov the manager. laboratory of physiology of food Russian food scientific and technical in-that, on base the cut in 1920 organized and headed Experimental in-t of physiology of food, Narkomzdrava who was in 1930 a part Ying-that food of RSFSR where he managed department of general physiology and was a consultant for questions of food of the population of the USSR.

Scientific activity of M. N. Shaternikov was for many years devoted to a research of gas exchange (see). To new way of determination of amount of the air exhaled by the person and the carbon dioxide gas which is contained in it it is devoted it dokt. thesis (1899). He the first in the USSR constructed the respiration device of the closed type (see Shaternikov the camera), to-ry allowed to study energy costs of people of various professional and age groups.

The basic researches of daily energy costs of working various specialties conducted by M. N. Shaterniko-vy allowed to divide for the first time in the world all adult population on power expenditure for 4 groups. Under its management intensive studying of a metabolism and scientific development of physiological norms of food was begun. The norms of food for various professional and age groups developed by M. N. Shater-nikov and his pupils gained world recognition and were accepted as the most adequate. M. N. Shaternikov's works on studying of mechanisms of effect of vitamins, various avitaminosis promoted development of vitaminology (see) in the USSR. He took part in creation of the State control vitamin station (1936) renamed in 1954 into scientific research institute of vitaminology M3 of the USSR (nowadays State scientific research institute on standardization and control of M3 medicines of the USSR). It made a big contribution to improvement of teaching physiology in medical in-ta of the country. M. N. Shaternikov created school of domestic physiologists, representatives a cut were the academician of AMN B. A. Lavrov’, the member correspondent of AMN O. P. Molchanov.

M. N. Shaternikov was a member of the Academic council Narkomzdrava the USSR, the chairman Moscow physiological about-va, the editor of a redotdel «Biological physics. Physiology» 1 prod. BME. He headed the organizing committees of the I Russian congress of physiologists (1917), the II—IV All-Union congresses of physiologists (1926, 1928, 1930), was elected the full member of Academy of natural sciences in Halle (1928).

Works: The device for the bystry and exact analysis of gases, SPb., 1896 (sovm. with Sechenov I. M.); Irritation of nerves by means of triple electrodes, Works Fiziol. in-that imp. Mosk. un-that, t. 5, century 1, page 35, 1896; The New way of definition on the person of quantity of expired air and contained in this C02, a yew., M., 1899; Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov, M., 1906; Physiological sketches, M. — Pg., 1923 (sovm. with Sechenov I. M.); The Management to a practical training on zoophysiologies and the person, M., 1924 (sovm. with Romashov D. I.); To a technique of a research of gas exchange, Zhurn. ekspery. biol. and medical, t. 1, No. 2, page 139, 1925; Researches of gas exchange at the person in long experiences, in the same place, t. 5, No. 15, page 395, 1927 (sovm. from Molchanova O. P.); About a proteinaceous part of diets, Vopr. food, t. 1, No. 1-2, page 44, 1932.

Bibliography: Molchanova O. P,

M. N. Shaternikov is the founder of domestic science about food, Vopr. food, t. 26, No. 5, page 73, 1967; Sh and t e r N and -

V. A. k and Gorelovo L. E. Mikhail Nikolaevich Shaternikov, 1870 —-1939, M., 1982. V. G. Zilov.