SHABADASHA WAYS (A. L. Sha -
badash, the Soviet neurohistologist and gistokhimik, 1898 — 1978) — the methods of fixing and coloring of tissue specimens developed by A. L. Sha-badashem. The most important of them are the method of supravital coloring of nervous tissue, ways of identification of a glycogen, definition of isoelectric points of cellular nucleoproteids.
The method of supravital coloring of nervous tissue of animals was described by Shabadash in 1929. It consists in introduction to a blood channel of isotonic solution methylene blue in mix with substrates (e.g., glucose) and cofactors (e.g., ions of magnesium). On gistol. drugs elements of nervous tissue (especially accurately structures of the autonomic nervous system) are painted at the same time in blue color.
The way of identification of a glycogen (see) and other polysaccharides (see) was offered by A. L. Shabadash in 1939. It is based on oxidation of polysaccharides by periodate of sodium (potassium) with education of the free aldehydic groups giving with Schiff's reactant (see Schiff a reactant) a deposit of cherry color. A. L. Shabada-sh developed a number of the fixers intended for introduction to arteries of the studied body and the polysaccharides promoting preservation. The greatest distribution was gained by the neutral fixer suitable also for submersible fixing (96% alcohol of 100 ml, copper nitrate of 1,8 g, calcium nitrate of 0,9 g, formalin of 10 ml). This fixer yields good results and during the carrying out others gistokhy. reactions, in particular at identification nucleinic to - t. After processing by alkalescent solution of periodate and Schiff's reactant the glycogen and the proteins containing glucose (to a lesser extent) are painted in Krasnov - that-violet color.
In 1953 the way of definition of isoelectric points of cellular nucleoproteids was offered: the fixed drugs paint in a consecutive series of solutions of the main dye (e.g., in 0,25% solution of methylene blue) on the phosphatic buffer with the pH values which are precisely graduated through small intervals (e.g., from
SHAGAS the DISEASE
361 2,0 to 10,4 with an interval 0,2). Coloring is fixed by 6% by solution of ammonium molybdate, drugs dehydrate and conclude in balm. The cellular structures containing nucleoproteids (granules of chromatin, a kernel, mitochondrions, ribosomes, etc.), gain color of dye (e.g., blue during the coloring by methylene blue). The minimum pH value, at Krom begins coloring of structure, corresponds to an isoelectric point (see) nucleoproteid. By means of this method reveal a structure, number and distribution of the called structures, and also their physical and chemical properties (in the average size of isoelectric points of organoid it is possible to judge number of the ionized groups in his squirrels, a ratio of the dissociated phosphate groups and nitrogen bases, extent of coupling nucleinic to - t with proteins, etc.).
See also Histologic methods of a research, Cell.
Bibliography: Merkulov G. A. Course
of the patologogistologichesky equipment, page 35, 262, L., 1969; Shabadash A. L. Theory and practice of vital staining of a nervous system methylene blue, Gorky, 1939; it, Decalcification of a bone neutral saline solutions, Dokl. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, t. 70, No. 3,
page 511, 1950; it, Histochemical to an obnar
zheniye of tigroid of nervous cells, in the same place, t. 91, No. 2, page 405, 1953; about N e, Cytochemical features of ribonucleoproteins of mitochondrions and an ergastoplazma, Cytology, t. 1, No. 1, page 15, 1959.
Ya. E. Hesinonim