From Big Medical Encyclopedia

In criminal and civil processes quite often there is a need of knowledge of a true morfofunktsionalny condition of generative organs of the defendant, victim or the other person, i.e. his sexual state. In the disputable, demanding specification cases, as a rule at malformations of generative organs, existence in them patol, processes or their simulation, establishment biol, a floor, sexual ability and puberty at persons of both sexes, sexual integrity, pregnancy, the fact and prescription of childbirth or abortion at women makes contents court. - honey. examinations (see).

Need of establishment floor (see) arises at divorce, consideration of claims for the alimony, in case of an appeal on military service, at issue of identity documents, investigation sexual crimes (see). For this purpose malformations of external genitals are the cause (an atresia of a vagina, an union of big and small vulvar lips, the Cryptorchism, etc.). Expert judgment of the true field is based on anamnestic (the beginning of periods, emissions, character of sexual desire etc.) and anthropometrical data, character secondary sexual, signs (the general appearance, a timbre of a voice, development of mammary glands, etc.)? structure outside and functions of internal generative organs. Assessment of a morfofunktsionalny condition of gonads which is carried out standard in a wedge, practice by methods has crucial importance (see. Small egg , Ovaries ).

Examination of sexual ability (at men to copulation and fertilization, at women to copulation and conception) is made at investigation of sexual crimes, cases of plunder of children, during the definition of severity of injuries, in divorce cases. Inability to copulation at men is caused by anatomic defects (malformations, extensive hems, tumors, etc.), existence of serious and debilitating diseases, diseases of c. N of page and generative organs, alcohol abuse, etc. Inability to fertilization can be caused by lack of testicles or their underdevelopment (see. Cryptorchism ), patol, process in testicles, napr, tumoral, tubercular (see. Small egg ), changes in deferent ducts (see), somatic, endocrine and mental diseases, poisonings, impact of ionizing radiation. Assessment of sexual ability at men is made taking into account the general physical condition, given about the diseases postponed earlier, development and a condition of generative organs. The leading value at establishment of ability to fertilization has a research sperms (see), in particular definition of enough normally created mobile spermatozoa. At suspicion on simulation of pathology of sperm by addition to it various chemical substances, heating, and also as a result of repeated masturbatsionny acts use complex electronic and microscopic and biochemical, researches is reasonable.

Inability to copulation at women is a consequence of such anatomic defects of generative organs as a short vagina, its aplasia or an atresia, narrowings, tumors (see. Vagina ), or vaginismus (see). Inability to conception is, as a rule, connected with age, diseases uterus (see) and ovaries (see), hormonal changes, hron, infections and intoxications, impact of ionizing radiation. Expert assessment of sexual ability at women is based on data of the general physical condition and development of external genitals, studying ginekol, the status according to original medical documents (to out-patient cards, case histories, etc.). In difficult cases carrying out stationary ginekol is reasonable. inspections.

At investigation of sexual crimes and crimes against the dignity of the personality (an insult, slander) carry out expertize puberty (see) and sexual integrity. As the proof of sexual integrity serves the condition of physical virginity, i.e. existence unimpaired, not allowing introduction to a vagina of a penis without its damage hymen (see). At disturbance of sexual integrity the expert determines the fact and prescription of commission of sexual intercourse on extent of healing of the damaged hymen and by results of researches of contents of a vagina on existence of spermatozoa in it. Examination pregnancies (see), fact and prescription childbirth (see) or abortion (see. Abortion artificial ) carry out during the definition of severity of injuries, concerning plunders or replacement of children, simulation of pregnancy, etc. At the heart of expert establishment of the real or taking place pregnancy, especially on its early terms, these researches of biological and hormonal responses, in particular definition in blood and urine of the woman lie chorionic gonadotrophin (see). It is found during 3 — 4 days after permission of pregnancy as a result of the complete abortion made in terms up to 12 weeks within 3 months — as a result of incomplete abortion (throughout all term of functioning vorsin placental fabric), during 2 — 3 days in urine and lokhiya — at normal births in time. Also increase in the sizes of mammary glands and allocation of a secret from them defined morfol, structure testifies to the fact of the pregnancy taking place (within 3 months after early abortion and 8 — 10 months after births in time if the woman did not feed the child). Examination of pregnancy of late terms is based on obstetric signs. At court. - medical examination concerning abortion issues of its character (spontaneous or artificial, criminal), the reason and effects for health are resolved. The diagnosis of abortion is established on the basis of results ginekol, survey (bruises, burns by chemical substances of a mucous membrane of a vagina and neck of uterus) and signs of the pregnancy taking place. The proof of abortion at necropsy are existence in a uterus placental platform (see), parts of a fruit and its covers, bruises of a vagina and uterus, a true yellow body in one of ovaries (by its sizes it is possible to judge approximately duration of gestation), at the same time results gistol, and court are considered. - chemical researches. Signs of recent childbirth are pigmentation of nipples and peripapillary circles, a nagrubaniye of mammary glands, release from them of milk or colostrum, the increased uterus, open or her slit-like outside pharynx, injuries of external genitals in the form of grazes, bruises and gaps, allocation of lokhiya (during 4 — 5 weeks after the delivery), a smoothness of a mucous membrane of a vagina, formation of so-called mirtovidny nipples of a hymen,

See also Hermaphroditism , Pseudohermaphroditism .

Bibliography: Semenov B. M. About efficiency of some laboratory methods of a research in examination of sexual states at men, Theses dokl. 1st Vsesoyuz, congress court. physicians, page 638, Kiev, 1976; Serdyukov M. G. Judicial gynecology and judicial obstetrics, M., 1964; Hizhnyakova K. I. The cytology of a secret of a mammary gland is normal also at some diseases, M., 1965.

K. I. Hizhnyakova.