From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SERVET Miguel (Servet Miguel; 1509 or 1511—1553) — the Spanish thinker and the doctor.


The humanistic atmosphere of Renaissance promoted formation of heterodox outlook, a versatility and width of interests of M. Ser-vet. He studied the right, geography and theology, snacha-. la in Zaragoza, then in Toulouse un-those. After the termination un-that in 1529 M. Servet moved to Germany where he got acquainted with the leader of the German reformation Martin Luther (M. Luther). This acquaintance induced it to the analysis of bases of the Protestant doctrine, its comparison with Catholicism. In the book «Inaccuracy of a Troichnost» published in 1531 he proved need to refuse a doctrine of a troichnost of a deity as fundamentals of Christian dogma. For these views M. Servet took the battering and prosecutions in Germany, and his book was set fire as heretical.

Having moved in 1535 to France, M. Servet published Ptolemaeus's «Geography» and the bible, having supplied them with the comments. From 1536 to 1538 studied medicine on medical f-those Parisian un-that and began to practise medicine, without leaving at the same time the theological occupations.

In 1553 M. Servet anonymously published - the main work «Recovery of Christianity», in Krom stated a complete picture of the world. Relying on traditions of the Florentine platonovsky Academy, he identified god with the general nature of things. It opposed to traditional dualism of the Christian divinity separating god from the world, the creator from creation in a rudimentary look the idea of internal unity of space. At the same time the person in all variety of its natural and spiritual qualities was the most important, central link of all picture of space outlook of M. Servet. The human nature was considered by M. Ser-vet as the highest and most considerable divine creation, in Krom actually and there is a merge of the divine principle, god, to the lowest step of life — the nature. Resolving an issue of an origin of «live spirit» of the person, M. Servet at the same time solved and anatomo-fiziolo-gicheskiye problems. It possesses the greatest opening — he proved existence of a small circle of blood circulation. He disproved opinion To. Galen from the left half of heart in right through the small openings which are allegedly available in a partition between auricles and for the first time gave a right idea of ways of the movement of blood on branches of a pulmonary artery from a right ventricle of heart to a lung of infiltration of blood and further on branches of pulmonary veins in the left auricle. M. Servet ingeniously foresaw fiziol. value of blood circulation» on a small circle and the processes happening in pulmonary fabric. He claimed that in lungs there is a removal from blood of «soot» and its saturation by «fresh air» therefore the «vital spirit» which is a source of all movements of an organism is formed.

Investigating cosmogonic problems of the universe, M. Servet includes in theological the painted picture of the world elements of konkretnonauchny, physiological knowledge. Thereby M. Servet's ideas undermined bases of a scholastic picture of the world that could not but draw upon it attacks from outside both Catholics, and Protestants. By F. Engels's definition, - he was an eminent person of revolutionary natural sciences of Renaissance. M. Servet refused to renounce the views for what he was burned on October 27, 1553 in Geneva together with the book.

The physiological and philosophical ideas of M. Servet found development in G. Bruno and A. Cesalpino's works, were world outlook and methodological base of a radical revolution in the history of medicine, to-ry is connected with R. Descartes and U. Garvey's names who laid the foundation of experimental natural sciences of Modern times.

Works: Christianismi restitutio, Vienne, 1553.

Bibliography: Budrin E. Mihail Servet and his time, Kazan, 1878; D and it e with about in S. M. Miguel Servet, from history of physiological sciences, Fiziol. shurn. USSR, t. 64, No. 2, page 253, 1978; Fedorovsky G. Ranks of great physicians, the lane with polsk., page 27, Warsaw, 1975; Bainton R. N of Hunter heretic, The life and death of Michael Servetus, 1511 — 1553, Boston, 1960, bibliogr.; S 1 i w i n-ski S. Miquel Serveto (1511 — 1553) — odkrywca plucnego kr^zenia krwi, Wiad. lek., t. 33, s. 589, 1980, bibliogr.

V. I. Tyshchenko.