SERRATION — bacteria of the sort Serratia Bizio 1823, tribe of Klebsiel-leae, this. Enterobacteriaceae. The Italian doctor of 18 century S. Serrati are called by name.
Page — opportunistic microbes (see), causing in the person it is purulent-vosialptelnye diseases of various localization. They represent mobile (peritrikh) gram-negative sticks, not sporiferous, often forming the capsule, oksidazootritsatelny, possessing a catalase, a deoxyribonuclease, an ornithinedecarboxylase, a beta galactosidase, but not decomposing arginine, phenylalanine and sorbite. The most studied look is Serratia marcescens which was called earlier Bacterium prodigiosum.
Originally bacteria of a type of S. marcescens considered as nonpathogenic microbes. In 60 20 century of S. marcescens it is recognized as the opportunistic microbe capable to cause a purulent infection of wounds, bronchial tubes, an uric path, a middle ear, eye, skin, and also to be the cause of the generalized infection which is shown in the form of an endocarditis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, meningitis at persons with the lowered resistance. S. marcescens value as one of activators is conventional intrahospital infection (see), especially in chambers of an intensive care and neonatal departments.
Bacteria of a type of S. marcescens use as a source of receiving Prodigiosanum (see). Pigmental strains are recommended as test objects during the testing of the cleaning systems intended for disinfecting of a bacterial aerosol.
Distinguishing characters of S. marcescens are fermentation of glucose with formation of gas, a maltose, mannitol, sucrose, gelatin, utilization of citrate; decarboxylation of a lysine, their inability to formation of hydrogen sulfide, indole, decomposition of rhamnose, pectine sugar, dulcite and adonit. 21 somatic O-antigens and 25 flagellar N-antigens are known, combinations to-rykh form 173 serotypes (serovar). S. marcescens is unpretentious to culture conditions, is capable to breed in the environment at the room temperature; represents a facultative anaerobe (see. Anaerobe bacterias ). On dense environments forms colonies with a diameter of 1 — 2 mm, round, convex, whitish or painted in red color. Thanks to chromogenesis of S. marcescens called «a wonderful stick». Its colonies growing in the form of blood-red specks on the dampened church fabrics and bread in medieval Italy regarded as «drops of blood of the Lord». A habital of S. marcescens are the humidified places of premises, various liquids in vessels, small reservoirs, wet fabrics. Sometimes bacteria find healthy children in Calais. Activators allocate from conditioning chambers of the resuscitation equipment, solutions for parenteral administration, from a surface of catheters, children's pacifiers, bronchoscopes, shaving-brushes, wet sites of floors and sinks, and even from weak solutions of disinfectants. Transfer of the activator from a subject regarding and from objects to the patient happens through hands. S. marcescens of a rezistentn to the majority of antibiotics — to penicillin, ampicillin, a karbenitsillin, tetracycline, a kolimitsin, cefalotin, and also to many disinfectants. To levomycetinum, aminoglycosides, nalidixic to - those and to Trimethoprimum sensitivity of different strains is various. At bacterial. a research material (pus, kcal, washouts from hands and the equipment) is sowed on dense environments, usual for enterobakteriya, in Petri dishes, blood and cerebrospinal liquid — in bottles with a beef-extract broth. The marked-out cultures identify on morphological and kulturalno-biochemical properties.
For treatment of the diseases caused by S. marcescens recommend (on the basis of an antibiotikogramma of the activator) ampkatsin, a combination of rifampicin. with polymyxin, drugs of aminoglycosides. Apply boiling and autoclaving to disinfecting of tools and the equipment; the tools and details which are not maintaining heat treatment immerse in mix 0,5% of solution of chloroamine or 3% of solution of hydrogen peroxide from 0,5% solution of detergent. For prevention of a S. marcescens broadcast through hands use sterile gloves or process leather of hands of 0,5% solution of a hlorgeksidin (gibiton).
Bibliography: Short determinant of bacteria Berg, under the editorship of J. Hoult, the lane with English, page 187, M., 1980; R and and N - Skye V. P. and Baturo A. P. New groups of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Zhurn. mikr., epid. and immun., No. z, page 10, 1975; Yu V. L. Serratia marcescens, historical perspective and clinical review, New Engl. J. Med., v. 300, p. 887, 1979, bibliogr.
H. H. Kostyukova.