From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SEROIMMUNITY (Latin serum serum + prevention) — the method of the prevention of an infectious disease consisting in introduction to an organism of immune serums or their specific active fractions — immunoglobulins; it is used at notorious or estimated infection of the person, and also at high risk of infection.

S.'s idea nek-ry inf. diseases arose after opening of antibodies (antitoxins) in blood serum of the experimental animals subjected to immunization when it was established that such serum renders protective and medical effect. In the 90th 19 century the possibility of neutralization (neutralization) of toxin was proved by blood serum of an immunizirovanny animal. Domestic microbiologists Ya. Yu. Bardakh and G. N. Gabrichevsky, it is mute. the researcher E. Bering and the fr. microbiologist to E. R in 1892 — 1894 independently from each other received the first antidiphtherial anti-toxic serum. And. G. Savchenko in 1893 received antiscarlatinal serum. For the next 20 years methods of preparation of the majority were developed immune serums (see), applied to prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Effect of immune serum

is resulted by passive immunity (see) at the expense of the specific antibodies entered with drug, there is a neutralization of the toxins produced by microorganisms, reactivity of an organism increases. The oroimmunity developing at administration of immune serums or their active fractions remains usually no more than 2 — 3 weeks. At repeated administration of immune serums it is even less long.

The page is used for the prevention tetanus (see), botulism (see), wound fevers (see), measles (see), diphtherias (see), flu (see), malignant anthrax (see), a tick-borne encephalitis (see. tick-borne Encephalitis ), etc. S.'s effect, as well as serotherapy (see), considerably is defined by terms of administration of drugs. The earlier specific serum will be entered, the result of its preventive action is more distinct.

Quite often S. is used in combination with active immunization (see). So, at injuries with disturbance of an integrity of fabrics enter antitetanic serum and tetanic anatoksinony

Along with the prevention inf. the wedge, a current inf can change S.'s diseases. diseases, in particular to reduce its weight, to increase an incubation interval (e.g., at measles up to 28 days instead of usual 10), to reduce the frequency of formation of a carriage of disease-producing factors.

S.'s sphere extends in connection with emergence new effective are-aktogennykh of immunoglobulins. On the Soviet-French symposium occurring in Moscow in 1979 S.'s efficiency during the use of the Soviet placental gamma-globulin with a high antiserum capacity against a meningococcal infection, and also the French gamma-globulin was shown, antibody-containing, against a meningokokk.

Bibliography: Burgasov P. N. and Impecunious I. S. Scientific bases of the organization of prevention of infectious diseases, M., 1977; The Guide to vaccinal and serumal business, under the editorship of P. N. Burgasov, page 254, M., 1978; The Reference book on use of bacteritic and virus drugs, under the editorship of S. G. Dza-gurov and F. F. Rezepov, M., 1975; Stanislavsky of E. S. Immunoprofilaktik and an immunotherapy of the diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria, Zhurn. mikr., epid. and immun., No. 12, page 91, 1980, bibliogr.

I. V. Rubtsov.