From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SENT-DYORDI Albert (Szent Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt Albert; sort. in 1893) — the Hungarian biochemist, works in the USA. Honorary member of the Hungarian academy of Sciences (1945), foreign member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1947), member of National academy of Sciences of the USA (1956) and American academy of Sciences and arts (1957), Nobel Prize laureate (1937).


Ended Budapest un-t in 1917. In 1922 — 1926 worked in the Netherlands, in 1927 — in England in Cambridge where gained the diploma of the doctor of philosophy. In 1927 — 1930 worked in clinic of Mayo in the USA. In 1930 professor of medical chemistry in un-those Szeged (Hungary) returned to Hungary, since 1931. During World War II (1939 — 1945) the participant of a resistance movement. In 1945 — 1947 professor of biochemistry Budapest un-that. Since 1947 the director in-that on studying of a muscle in Sea biological laboratory in Woods Hall (Massachusetts, the USA).

Early works of A. Saint-Dyerdyi are devoted to studying of processes biol. oxidations in vegetable and animal fabrics. In 1928 — 1933 he allocated from adrenal glands of animals, and also from citrus plants, cabbage and pepper one of hexuronic to - t, identified it as redoxon and called ascorbic to - that as it prevents development of a scurvy (Latin of scorbutus). During the studying of oxygen consumption by the crushed muscular tissue showed that apple, amber, fumaric and oxalacetic to - you have catalytic effect on processes of tissue respiration (1935). These data were used afterwards by G. Krebs during the opening of recycling tricarboxylic to - t (tricarbonic acid cycle). For researches biol. oxidation and work on studying of redoxon it is conferred the Nobel Prize in the field of physiology and medicine. Among the subsequent works of A. Saint-Dyerdyi researches of chemical mechanisms of muscular contraction are most considerable: he found in skeletal muscles of squirrels, called it actin; showed that this protein forms a complex with a myosin known earlier, called this complex actomyosin and studied its reduction under the influence of ATP. Other researches of A. Saint-Dyerdyi are devoted to quantum-mechanical consideration biol. processes, to allocation of growth factors from a thymus.

Works: Observations on the function of peroxidase systems and the chemistry of adrenal cortex, Description of a new carbohydrate derivative, Biochem. J., v. 22, p. 1387, 1928; Vitamin C, Adrenalin und Nebennie-re, Dtsch. med. Wschr., S. 852, 1932; On oxidation, fermentation, vitamins, health and disease, Baltimore, 1939; Chemical physiology of contraction in body and heart muscle, N. Y., 1953; Bio-energetics, the lane with English, M., 1960; Introduction in a subpier-kulyarnuyu biology, the lane with English, M., 1964; The living state, With observations on cancer, N. Y. — L., 1972.

Bibliography: Meyers Neues Lexikon, Bd 13, S. 386, Lpz., 1976; Sulek K. Rok 1937, Nagroda dla Alberta Szent-Gyorgyi za odkrycia dotyczace procesu bio-logicznego spalania, szczegolinie witaminy G i katalizy kwasu fumarowego, Wriad. lek., t. 21, s. 911, 1968.

I. M. Karmansky.