From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SENEGAL, the Republic of Senegal — the state in the Western Africa. Territory of 196,2 thousand km 2 . Population of 5,7 million people (1980, assessment). The capital — Dakar (with suburbs apprx. 1 million zhit., 1979). Ofits. language — French. In the administrative relation of S. is divided into 7 areas.


Page — the former fr. colony. In August, 1960 the independent Republic of Senegal was proclaimed, however France continues to keep in S. the military bases and key positions in economy. The legislature belongs to National assembly, executive — to the president and the government appointed by it.

The climate of the country subequatorial, transitional from droughty on S. to wet on Yu.

Ekonomik S. keeps colonial, backward character, though is more developed, than in some other the African countries.

The leading role is played by production and processing of a peanut. In agriculture it is engaged apprx. 80% of the amateur population; the communal and feudal ownership of land prevails.

The main nationalities in the country — Wolof, a fulba, a tukuler, a sandy-pebble desert, a man-dingo. In 1980 vital rates, on the materials published in editions of WHO made (for 1000 the population): birth rate 48,0, mortality 28,0, natural increase 20,0. Child mortality 147,0 on 1000 live-born.

In structure of incidence of the population the important place is taken by infectious and parasitic diseases. In 1977 105 cases of a typhoid and a paratyphoid, 996 — inf were registered. hepatitis, 1498 — an amebiasis, 44 312 — enteritam of other etiology, 366 967 — malaria, 2605 — a pulmonary tuberculosis and 242 — tuberculosis of other localization, 1228 — a leprosy, 5210 — trachoma etc. Are eurysynusic veins. diseases. At children, except eurysynusic intestinal infections, cases of measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, diphtheria, poliomyelitis are registered.

Responsibility for health care is conferred on Min-in of public health care and social affairs. In each area there is the chief medical specialist».

In 1977 in S. was 44 to lay down. institutions on 5827 beds (11,1 beds on 10 000 population), including 5 BCs of the general profile on 3069 beds, 4 rural and local-tsy on 854 beds and 35 medical centers on 1904 beds. Extra hospital help is given in polyclinic departments of BC, the medical centers and on posts of health care. Besides, there are institutions specialized extra pain-nichnye on health protection of mother and child, stomatol. offices, psychiatric clinics, clinics for treatment of patients with a leprosy, etc. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of S. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).

In 1976 in the country there were 311 doctors (0,6 doctors on 10 000 population), 37 stomatologists, 90 druggists, 380 midwifes, 2357 nurses, 723 assistants to nurses, 641 auxiliary nurses, 12 technicians-laboratory assistants.

Training of doctors and paramedical staff is carried out at school on the training of doctors, druggists and stomatologists which is providing training of personnel and at the same time carrying out research.

Bibliography: The countries and the people, Africa, the General review, the Western and Central Africa, under the editorship of Yu. V. Bromley, etc., page 30, M., 1979; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 70, Geneva, WHO, 1981; Demographic yearbook, 1978, p. 109 and. lake, N. Y., 1979; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 32, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual 1980 — 1981, Infections diseases, p. 9, Geneva, 1981.

A. A. Rozov.