SEMYONOV Nikolay Nikolaevich (sort. in 1896) — the Soviet physicist and fizikokhimik, the academician of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1932), twice Hera of Socialist Work (1966, 1976), the winner of the Lenin award (1976), the State awards of the USSR (1941, 1949), the Nobel Prize (1956). Member of the CPSU (1947).
Ended Petrograd un-t in 1917 t Worked in Tomsk technological in-those (1918 — 1920), and then in Leningrad physics and technology in-those, at the same time (since 1928) professor Leningrad polytechnical in-that. In 1931 became the director organized by it Ying-that chemical physics of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, at the same time professor of MSU (since 1944).
H. N. Semenov is an author more than 200 scientific works, from them 10 monographs devoted to development of the theory of burning, explosions and a detonation; to a research * homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis; to use of the principles of an enzyme catalysis in chemistry; to development of problems of molecular biology and kinetics biol. processes; to philosophical questions of natural sciences. H. N. Semenov opened a phenomenon of chain branching reactions and gave it theoretical justification; value of chain reactions at various levels of the organization of matter is shown them and questions of their use in practice are investigated. In a crust, time it is established that in development of a row patol. states (a radial illness, malignant new growths, etc.) an important role is played by disturbances of regulation of chain reactions of free radicals.
H. N. Semenov was elected the candidate for members of the Central Committee of the CPSU] (from 1961 to 1966), the Deputy of the Supreme Council of the USSR (from 1960 to 1970).
In 1957 — 1963 - the academician-secretary of Department of chemical sciences of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Vice-president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1963 — 1971). Since 1958 is the chairman about-va USSR — Sweden. N. N. Semenov is the founder of the Soviet school of chemical physicists, the honorary member of many foreign academies and scientific about - century.
It is awarded by 9 Orders of Lenin, an award of the Labour Red Banner, medals of Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including a medal of M. V. Lomonosov.
Works: Chain reactions, L., 1934; About chain reactions in chemistry, Usp. chemical, t. 22, century 5, page 521, 1953; About some problems of chemical kinetics and reactivity, M., 1958; Development of the theory of chain reactions and thermal ignition, M., 1969; Chemistry of the future, Chem. Brit., V. 10(12), p. 471, 1974.
Bibliography: To Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov's seventieth anniversary, Zhurn. physical. chemical, t. 40, century 4, page 753, 1966; Emanuel N. M. Outstanding scientist and his school of sciences, Vestn. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, No. 4, page 93, 1966.
E. B. Burlakova.