SEMASHKO Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1874 — 1949) — visible party and the statesman, the first National commissioner of health care of RSFSR, the outstanding theorist and the organizer of the Soviet health care, the academician of AMH (1944) and Academy of pedagogical sciences of RSFSR (1945). The member of the CPSU since 1893.
In 1891 arrived on medical f-t Moscow un-that where participated in activity of Marxist circles and became the member of «Council of an association» — the illegal central organization of students. For participation in revolutionary movement in 1895 it was arrested and after the three-months conclusion it is banished for two years to the Oryol province under public police surveillance.
Upon termination of the term of the reference in connection with prohibition to live in capital cities of N. A. Semashko moved to Kazan where in 1901 ended medical f-t Kazan un-that. In 1899 — 1900 took part in the organization social demokratiches-kikh circles in Kazan. Upon termination of un-that, without interrupting party work, served as the doctor in the Oryol and Samara provinces, managed the rural medical site in the Mtsensk County of the Oryol province. Estimating afterwards the work on the rural site, he wrote: «In all depth and a variety I comprehended medical work, and it gave me medical tempering for the rest of life. I was... both the therapist, and the surgeon, and the obstetrician, and the pediatrician — all. It was necessary to do surgical and obstetric operations in the most improbable conditions. Life of the district territorial doctor at that time was heavy: the site is huge, work big and difficult, * to ask for council or help there is nobody, the next doctor — for 40 versts. Environment heavy: the country poor, lack of cultural forces in the village. And, above all — constant surveillance of police».
During the revolution of 1905 N. A. Semashko was a part of the Nizhny Novgorod committee of RSDRP, headed city strike committee, directed an armed revolt of sormovsky workers, organized medical care by risen. In 1905 it was again arrested. After the nine-months conclusion it was released on bail, but, without having waited for court, emigrated to Switzerland. In Geneva for the first time met V. I. Lenin. In 1907 the Swiss authorities arrested N. A. Semashko upon the demand of the imperial government. In destiny of the arrested hot part was taken by V I. Lenin, and N. A. Semashko's delivery to the imperial government thanks to vigorous actions of V. I. Lenin broke.
In 1908 N. A. Semashko together with the Bolshevist foreign center led by V. I. Lenin moved to Paris where till 1910 he worked as the secretary of the RSDRP Central Committee foreign bureau, actively participated in work of party school in Lonzhyu-mo (near Paris). He participated in the meeting of foreign Bolshevist groups convened by V. I. Lenin in Paris for unity of Bolshevist forces abroad.
In 1911 — 1912 N. A. Semashko published in the Bolshevist newspapers «Zvezda» and «Sotsial-demokrat» under a pseudonym Alexandrov of the article «Insurance of Workers upon an Old Age» (the letter from Paris), «Lessons of war», «An agrarian question in the III Duma», «The state insurance of workers and a problem of the moment», «The same and not that» (in the last article the health care in Russia was criticized). At the RSDRP Prague All-Russian party conference (on January 18 — 30, 1912) N. A. Semashko made the report on the issue of insurance of workers. The draft resolution made by it was edited by V. I. Lenin and adopted by a conference. Original positions of the report and resolution came down to the following requirements: 1) shall be subject to the state insurance all living on the salary both in the cities, and in rural areas; 2) insurance funds are formed from contributions of businessmen and the states insured shall be freed from contributions to insurance funds; 3) insurance shall extend to all types of disability: due to illness, to accidents, disability, an old age, and for women, besides, in case of pregnancy and childbirth; 4) insurance grants shall equal on the salary, but not represent «a tip on poverty», as in the bourgeois countries of the West; 5) the insurance company shall be constructed on the basis of self-government of insured. This Bolshevist «insurance program» after Great October socialist revolution was carried completely out; the laws on social insurance following from this program were published in December, 1917.
Since 1913 N. A. Semashko worked as the doctor in Serbia and Bulgaria, at the beginning of World War I was interned. Having returned from emigration to Moscow in September, 1917, he took active part in party work together with doctors - pain - shevikami M. F. Vladimirsky, I. V. Rusakov, 3. P. Solovyov, B. A. Obukh, B. S. Veysbrod, C. N. Volkonskoy. He was elected the chairman of the Pyatnitsky justice of Moscow, took part in preparation of the October armed revolt and in days of fights organized medical aid to participants of a revolt. After Great October Socialist revolution of N. A. Semashko headed medical and hygienic department of Bureau of regional thoughts. In May, 1918 he was appointed the manager of medical and sanitary department of the Moscow Council of working, country and soldier's deputies. In July, 1918 N. A. Semashko was appointed the National commissioner of health care of RSFSR and held this post till 1930.
Under the leadership of N. A. Semashko in severe conditions of foreign military intervention and civil war the theoretical and organizational foundation of the Soviet health care was laid, new sections of health care — protection of motherhood and an infancy, sanatorium business are created; the system of the higher medical education is reconstructed; attraction of wide circles of the medical, working and country public to activity of bodies of health care began. A reactionary top of Pirogovsky about-va (see. Pirogovsky congresses ) called doctors for sabotage and for failure from cooperation with the Soviet power. N. A. Semashko exposed reactionary ideology of pirogovets and with the performances involved wide circles of doctors in activity of bodies of health care. It combined Narkomzdrava prominent scientists, including L. A. Tarasevich, E. I. Martsinovsky, A. N. Sysin, M. N. Shaternikov, A. N. Bach, P. I. Kurkin, A. A. Kisel, M. P. Konchalovsky, N. I. Tezyakov who took active part in the decision medical around - a dignity. the tasks facing health care of the first socialist state. With the assistance of N. A. Semashko it was based State scientific by in-t of national health care of L. Pasteur, on base to-rogo the network of research in-comrades grew later.
In 1922 he headed department of social hygiene medical f-that Moscow un-that (is later than the 1st MMI), the cut it directed to the death. N. A. Semashko made a big contribution to formation and development of social hygiene. The theoretical generalizations made by it in works «Policy of the Soviet power and social hygiene», «Social hygiene in the USSR», etc. were a step forward in development of Marxist social hygiene and criticism of social-reformist concepts in this area. In the article «Karl Marx and Social Hygiene» he revealed communication of social hygiene with the theory of Marxism, emphasized a disastrous role of a capitalist system in destruction of health of workers, specifying that at the same time matter not only severe conditions of production, but also a condition of life. The housing need characteristic of the capitalist cities is considered as one of the reasons of deterioration in health of workers. «Sketches according to the theory of the organization of the Soviet health care» (1947) sum up the result of theoretical judgment of 30 years' experience of the Soviet health care.
N. A. Semashko took part in establishment of contacts between the Soviet and foreign physicians. In 1925 he made in Paris the report on the Soviet health care at a meeting of «The French association on development of medical bonds with other countries». In 1928 with the assistance of N. A. Semashko «The international social days» in Paris were spent, «Russian-German medical week» was spent, «The Russian-German medical magazine» was organized, N. A. Semashko was one of editors to-rogo.
In 1930 — 1936 N. A. Semashko was elected the member of Presidium In the CPU K, worked as the chairman Det - a cut was directed to the commission In the CPU K, activity to fight against homelessness, to lay down. - the prof. work in child care educational facilities (see. Homelessness, neglect ).
Upon termination of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945) under the leadership of N. A. Semashko studying was begun sanitary effects of war (see). In February, 1946. The presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences according to N. A. Semashko's report approved the commission under his presidency, edges held 5 scientific conferences with participation of the most visible clinical physicians and hygienists. Along with the reports characterizing elimination a dignity. effects of war, messages on influence of war on the course of tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases, the frequency and a wedge, the course of cancer, epidemiology and a wedge, the course of malaria were discussed.
N. A. Semashko participated in creation of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, was a member of its first Presidium. Under its management Ying t of the organization of health care and history of medicine was created (bearing nowadays his name), the director to-rogo it was in 1947 — 1949. N. A. Semashko in the field of school hygiene worked hard, having left a number of considerable works. In 1945 — 1949 he was a director Ying-that school hygiene of Academy of pedagogical sciences.
N. A. Semashko took active part in development of physical culture, he was the first chairman of the Supreme council for physical culture and sport. On its initiative are created Ying t of physical culture of P.F. Lesgaft in Leningrad and Ying t of physical culture of V. I. Lenin in Moscow. Accepted active participation of N. A. Semashko in activity All-Union hygienic about-va, the chairman of the board to-rogo it was in 1940 — 1949. In 1947 he was elected the chairman of the XII All-Union congress of hygienists, epidemiologists, microbiologists and infectiologists.
N. A. Semashko was an initiator of the first edition of the Big medical eptsiklopediya and its editor-in-chief (1927 — 1936). In the activity N. A. Semashko paid much attention to development a dignity. educations; often made in working audiences reports and lectures, and in the press — popular scientific articles.
The literary inheritance of N. A. Semashko contains more than 250 works on theoretical and organizational issues of health care, history of medicine. With its participation fundamental issues of the Soviet medicine and health care were developed.
Many are called a name of N. A. Semashko to lay down. - the prof. of establishment, the street in Moscow and other cities, the All-Russian Research Institute of social hygiene and the organization of health care.
The USSR Academy of Medical Sciences is founded an award of N. A. Semashko for works in the field of the theory and history of the Soviet health care.
Works: Koch, Virkhov, M., 1934; Chosen works, M., 1954, 1967; Stitched and endured, M., 1960.
Bibliography: Badgers M. I. and Slonim I. A. Main lines of vital pi of a career N. A. Semashko, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 4, page 45, 1949; About r f and D. V N. Questions of rural health care in works and N. A. Semashko's activity, M., 1959, bibliogr.; Nikolay Aleksandrovich Semashko, under the editorship of A. N. Shabanov, M., 1952, bibliogr.; Petrov B. D., N. A. Semashko is the founder of the Soviet health care, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 10, page 63, 1977; Petrov B. of and P about t at l about in B. M., N. A. Semashko, M., 1974.
B. D. Petrov.