From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SELYE Hans (Selye Hans Hugo Bruno; 1907 — 1982) — the Canadian Pathologist.


Got a medical education on a medical f-takh of German (in Prague), the Parisian and Roman high fur boots. From 1929 to 1931 was the assistant to department of experimental pathology of German un-that. Having received in 1931. A rock Feller grant, worked in un-those John Hopkins (USA), and since 1932 in un-those Mac-Gilla (Canada). Since 1945 professor and director Ying-that experimental medicine and surgery Montreal un-that.

G. Selye is an author more than 1500 publications, including about 30 monographs and manuals. In student's years he - paid attention to stereotype of the reactions of an organism arising in response to action of various pathogenic factors. Unlike A. D. Speransky and some other the pathologists developing during the same period the doctrine about standard nervnoreflektorny reactions G. Selye paid the main attention to studying of humoral mechanisms, to some extent developing representations. U. Kennona about sympaticoadrenal system as the main mechanism of maintenance of a homeostasis. In the course of experimental studying of action of various nonspecific agents (cold, an operative measure, toxicants, etc.) it formulated representations about adaptation syndrome (see) and stress (see).

G. Showed a Selye that any disease-producing agent acting on an organism, in addition to the specific effects caused by his qualitative nature causes a number of not specific to this irritant, the same developing shifts in an organism: activation of activity of a front share of a hypophysis and bark of adrenal glands, involution of the timiko-lymphatic device and formation of ulcerations on a mucous membrane of bodies went. - kish. path. This reaction was called by G. Selye the general adaptation syndrome. The local inflammation and other stereotypic shifts arising in directly damaged fabrics («target organ») create a local adaptation syndrome. Qualitative or quantitative inadequacy of adaptation syndromes causes emergence of so-called adaptation diseases. In a razvrggiya of the general adaptation syndrome allocates the main role of G. Selye for «adaptive hormones» — to adrenocorticotropic and somatotropic hormones, catecholamines and hl. obr. to corticosteroids, to-rye are subdivided into two groups: about - and antiinflammatory. Each organism, in his opinion, possesses hereditarily caused, limited stock of adaptation energy, exhaustion to-rogo defines decrease in resilience and eventually leads organizkhm to death. On the basis of these representations of G. Selye the universal theory of pathology was offered, in a cut the role of «konditsionalny» factors was emphasized and the concept of plyurikau-screen diseases moved forward (the etiological factor only «starts» the stereotypic mechanism patol. process). Attempt to offer a comprehensive explanation of the most various patol. processes determines by way of the data of their pathogeny to certain disturbances of Hormonal regulation a number of weaknesses of the all-pathological concept and nek-ry philosophical judgments of G. Selye.

G. Selye is developed a pilot model of focal necroses and calcification of a myocardium, and also other fabrics, in a cut as the main pathogenetic mechanism is considered to the narusheena of balance of electrolytes and steroid hormones in an organism. G. Selye's concept created theoretical premises for an explanation of efficiency of corticosteroid therapy at not endocrine diseases.

A number of works of G. Selye is devoted to questions of philosophy, psychology, sociology, practice of scientific creativity, lifestyle, etc. Distribution in its nek-ry works biol. concepts on social relationship sparks fair criticism.

G. A Selye — the honourable doctor of many high fur boots of the world, the member international and national scientific medical about - century Un-t in Brno (ChSSR) founded a medal of a name. A Selye, awarded for a contribution to development of the general pathology.

Works: Syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents, Nature (Lond.), v. 138, p. 32, 1936; The physiology and pathology of exposure to stress, Montreal, 1950; Textbook of endo * crinologv, Montreal, 1950; The stress of life, N. Y., * 1956; Sketches about an adaptation syndrome, the lane with English, M., 1960; Prevention of necroses of heart chemical means, the lane with English, M.," 1961; Experimental cardiovascular diseases, v. 1 — 2, In — N. Y., 1970; Hormones and resistance, v 1—2, N. Y., 1971; At the level of the whole organism, the lane with English, M., 1972; The Stress without distress, the lane with English, M., 1979.

Bibliography: Lisitsyn Yu. P. Health of the population and modern theories of medicine, page 210, M., 1982; G an e r t-n e N. Hans Selye — 30 lat teorii stres-su 40 lat pracy naukowej i 60 lat zycia, PR/egl. lek., s. 832, 1971; To h about about 1 I. S. To the 70th anniversary of dr. Hans Selye, Rejuvenation, v. 5, p. 39, 1977.

V. I. Kandror.