SEDATIVES (sedativa; late lat. sedativus calming) — the pharmaceuticals having the calming effect on c. N of page without noticeable disturbances of its functions. Are subgroup of the calming psychotropic drugs. Are applied in medical practice of hl. obr. for treatment of neurotic states.
In comparison with tranquilizers (see) sedatives have less expressed psychosedative effect, have no hypnotic and myorelaxation properties, do not cause an ataxy. At prolonged use of S. of page mental medicinal dependence to them does not develop.
In to lay down. S.'s doses of page do not possess somnolent action. However, exerting the calming impact on c. N of page, they can promote approach and deepening of a dream.
There are S. of page of a plant and synthetic origin.
From S. villages of a plant origin widely use drugs of a valerian medicinal (see. Valerian ) and close to them on action drugs motherwort (see) — infusion, tincture and extract of a grass of a motherwort five-bladed (Leonurus quinquelobatus Gilib.) and motherwort ordinary, or cordial (Leonurus cardiaca L.). Drugs (infusion, tincture) of a root of a patrinia of average, or a valerian stone have the expressed sedative effect (Patrinia intermedia Retsch.) this. Valerianaceae. Tincture and extract of a passionflower inkarnatny (Passiflora incarnata L.) also cause the calming effect and have anticonvulsant properties. Besides, as S. pages apply tincture of the peony evading (Paeonia anomala L.).
Hop ordinary (Humulus lupulus L.) earlier also considered a calmative, and attributed sedation to the bitter substances which are contained in cones and pieces of iron of hop (Glanduli lupuli) — humulone and lupulon. However later it was established that these substances soothingly influence only cold-bloodeds (frogs), and do not affect mammals and the person. Nevertheless drugs of hop (extract, tincture) sometimes add to a nek-eye to the combined sedative drugs.
The nek-ry plants containing possess sedative action cardiac glycosides (see), especially an adonis spring, or a spring adonis (see. Adonis ). There are pilot studies testimonial of the fact that aglikona of cardiac glycosides — strophanthidin, erizimidin have sedative effect. Has weak sedative properties also menthol (see), being a component of oil of peppery mints (see).
Pages of a synthetic origin belong to S. bromides (see) and nek-ry other drugs. From compounds of bromine in medical practice apply sodium bromide, Kalii bromidum and Bromcamphora. I. P. Pavlov provided proofs that bromides stimuliruyushche influence brake processes in c. N of page.
Various antipsychotic and somnolent drugs have sedative effect in small doses (see. Neuroleptics , Hypnagogues ), including. barbiturates (see), especially the phenobarbital appointed usually for this purpose in small doses (0,01 — 0,03 g on reception).
The page has limited use as S. hlorbutanolgidrat. In small doses has sedative effect also Chlorali hydras (see).
Sedative properties a number of urethanes and ureides (derivatives of urea), in particular urethane — ethyl ether carbamic to - you, and also derivative urea, napr has, bromisoval (see). The last along with rather expressed sedation possesses weak somnolent action.
The nek-ry medicines which are usually not considered directly as the substances influencing c can have the calming effect. N of page. At such drugs sedation accompanies the basic pharmakol. to action. So, e.g., the expressed sedative action can be observed at use of diuretic Diacarbum (see), nek-ry anti-hypertensive drugs — clonidine (see. Katapresan ), Methyldopas (see), etc.
In medical practice as S. pages use also various combined drugs. In particular, treat their number Bekhterev's mixture (see. Bekhtereva mixture ); Corvalol (see), to-ry appoint 15 — 30 drops 2 — 3 times a day at the neurosises which are followed by an acrimony, unsharply expressed spasms coronary (coronal, T.) vessels, at tachycardia, sleeplessness, etc.
The page combined by S. is Valocormidum (Valocormidum) containing Tinctura Valerianae and a lily of the valley 10 ml, tinctures of a belladonna of 5 ml, sodium of bromide of 4 g, menthol of 0,25 g, the water distilled to 3® by ml. This drug is appointed on 10 — 20 drops by 2 — 3 times a day.
In ChSSR produce drug Valosedanum (Valosedanum), oils of hop of 0,15 g, extract of a rhubarb of 0,83 g, barbital of sodium of 0,2 g, alcohol of ethyl 20 ml, the water distilled to 100 ml are a part to-rogo extract of a valerian of 0,3 g. It is applied at neurosises and neurosis-like states on 1 chayn. l. 2 — 3 times a day.
The combined drug Passitum (Passit) which is released also in ChSSR contains extracts of a passionflower, a valerian, a St. John's Wort, hawthorn, hop and other substances, waters and alcohol to 100 ml. Passitum appoint at neurotic frustration on 1 chayn. l. 3 — 4 times a day.
In addition to the specified combined drugs, also other combinations of S. of page, in particular with other substances influencing c can be applied. N of page. In all cases the right choice of S. of page or the corresponding combination of medicines and establishment of the most effective individual dose is very important for achievement of optimum therapeutic effect.
Bibliography: M and sh to about in with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 88, M., 1977.
M. D. Mashkoveky.