SECHENOV Ivan Mikhaylovich (1829 — 1905) — the great domestic scientist, the founder of domestic physiological school and materialistic psychology in Russia, the member correspondent (1869) and the honorary member (1904) St. Petersburg academies of Sciences.
In 1848 graduated from the Main engineering school in St. Petersburg and it was sent for service to engineer battalion under Kiev. In 1851 resigned and arrived on medical f-t Moscow un-that. Upon termination of un-that in 1856 it was sent abroad for preparation for a professorial position, worked in the largest laboratories under the leadership of I. Müller, E. Du Bois-Reymond, K. Ludvig, K. Bernard, etc. In 1860 upon return home protected dokt. the thesis «Materials for future physiology of alcoholic intoxication» it was also elected professor of department of physiology of the St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy. During its work the department of academy became the center of promotion of the materialistic ideas in biology and medicine. Since 1870 I. M. Sechenov professor of department of physiology Novorossiysk un-that in Odessa, and since 1876 professor of department of physiology physical and mathematical f-that St. Petersburg un-that. In 1889. And. M. Sechenov begins to work for medical f-those Moscow un-that as the privatdozent of department of physiology, and in 1891 becomes her professor and the head. In 1901 I. M. Sechenov refused management of department that, on its expression, «to clear the road to young forces». Until the end of life I. M. Sechenov continued to work in laboratory at the department created and equipped with it on own means.
I. M. Sechenov treats that galaxy of the Russian scientific 19 century, to-rykh the surprising versatility of talent and scientific interests distinguishes. The important role in formation of materialistic outlook of I. M. Sechenov was played by N. G. Chernyshevsky, I. T. Glebov, F. I. Inozemtsev, K. F. Rulje. Development of many questions in various fields of physiology having important practical and theoretical value is connected with a name of I. M. Sechenov. It possesses researches on physiology of breath and blood, dissolution of gases in liquids, to gas exchange and exchange of energy, alcoholic poisoning, physiology of c. N of page and neuromuscular physiology, electrophysiology. Oya the creator of recent trends in fiziol. to science, it laid the foundation of materialistic psychology.
A considerable part of pilot studies of I. M. Sechenov is devoted to studying of patterns of distribution of gases in blood, in particular to dissolution, binding and transportation of carbon dioxide gas. By means of the device designed by it — the absorptiometer which allowed to analyze with a big accuracy absorption of gases a whole blood and plasma it drew a conclusion essentially new for those times that in exchange of C02 the extremely important role belongs to erythrocytes of blood. Having studied absorption of C02 various salt solutions, he established the empirical formula reflecting dependence between solubility of gases in electrolyte and concentration of the last. This formula is known in science as a formula, or the equation, Sechenova.
Studying features of gas exchange between blood and fabrics and between an organism and the environment, I. M. Sechenov showed that process of binding gekhmoglobiny oxygen favors to easier release of carbon dioxide gas from blood. A research of causes of death of two French astronauts who rose on an aerostat Zenit by height of 8600 m? led it to the formulation of the theory of constancy of gas structure of an alveolar air (1882) as most important condition of normal existence of an organism. These researches promoted afterwards development of a recent trend in domestic physiology — an aviation and space fiziodogiya.
Works on studying of gases in blood are connected with researches of gas exchange in an organism, to-rye were carried out by I. M. Sechenov together with M. N. Shaternikov. It served as the beginning for studying of a metabolic cost at the person at different types physical and brainwork. For this purpose they constructed the portable gas analyzer allowing to conduct long researches of gas exchange at the person who is as at rest, and in the movement.
I. M. Sechenov's works in the field of neurophysiology closely connected with his psychological and philosophical searches directed to creation of complete idea of an organism and its bonds with the environment have special scientific value. I. M. Sechenov possesses opening of central braking (see). a cut brought it the world glory and entered science iod the name Setschenow's inhibition (see). It for the first time described two other fundamental phenomena in c. N of page — summation of vozbuzhdeniye and an after-effect. Continuation of these works were researches in the area elektrofiziol. activities of a brainstem. He for the first time (1882) found and described rhythmic potentials of a myelencephalon. It was the first-ever research, at Krom elektrofiziol. the method was applied to the analysis of activity of c. N of page.
In the next years scientific interests of I. M. Sechenov were concentrated on studying of patterns and fiziol. features of work of the person, fiziol. bases of a work-rest schedule. Its article «Physiological Criteria for Installation of Length of the Working Day» (1895) actually was the first in the world literature special research devoted to scientific justification of extremely urgent and politically important issue about duration of the working day of workers. These researches were a basis of the new section of physiology — physiology of work.
I. M. Sechenov by right is considered the founder of domestic materialistic physiology of century of N of and psychology. He for the first time began with strictly scientific methods a research of the difficult phenomena in activity of a brain, opposed the existing idealistic views of processes of mental activity. He not only considered mental activity function of a brain, but also consistently upheld the provision on determinancy of this activity by living conditions. According to the scientist, the mental phenomena «are subordinated to so immutable laws, as well as the phenomena of a material world because only under such condition really scientific development of mental acts is possible».
And. M. Sechenov who convincingly proved that «all acts of adult and unconscious life on a way of an origin an essence reflexes», for the analysis of behavior both in physiology of a nervous system, and in psychology it chose the reflex which is the natural and determined reaction of an organism to action of the environment (see. Reflex , Reflex theory ). The new step taken by I. M. Sechenov in the history of materialistic psychology is that he considered a mental component as an integral part of a reflex of a brain as a necessary link of that category of reflexes, to-rye it called reflexes with mental complications. The objective method of a research of mental phenomena developed by I. M. Sechenov was developed in V. M. Bekhterev's works, I. P. Pavlova and gained world recognition. I. M. Sechenov's idea about a reflex basis of mental activity was the base for creation of psychophysiology, it promoted creation and development of physiology of century of N of.
I. M. Sechenov's works on studying of various sections of physiology were directed to knowledge of complete activity of an organism of unity of its corporal and mental manifestations, of its continuous communication with a material world. In the researches I. M. Sechenov proceeded from the philosophy of materialistic natural sciences — unity of an organism and the environment. «The organism without the external environment supporting its existence is impossible — he wrote — therefore scientific definition of an organism shall include also the Wednesday influencing it. As without the last existence of an organism is impossible, disputes that in life it is more important whether Wednesday, pl the body, do not make the slightest sense».
The idea of unity of an organism and Wednesday, strict causal conditionality of all manifestations of mental activity received the fullest development in I. M. Sechenov's work «Reflexes of a brain» (1863), called I. P. Pavlov «an ingenious wave of the Russian scientific thought». In this work And. M. Sechenov for the first time establishes continuous connection physiological and mental and develops a thought about «transferring of the mental phenomena, from a way of their commission, on the physiological soil», having emphasized with that that «sincere» activity of the person submits to the same laws, as corporal, and can be studied with the help fiziol. methods.
I. M. Sechenov laid the foundation of evolutionary interpretation of physiological functions. Motive powers of evolution according to I. M. Sechenov are «influences on organisms of that Wednesday, in a cut they live, or more precisely, conditions of their existence», to the Crimea they shall adapt. They act as a powerful factor of variability, transformation of simple forms in difficult, generations of new biologic forms and processes. The originality of sechenovsky evolyutsionnobiologichesky approach consists that it extended to the highest level of the organization — a nervous system. Its doctrine realized continuous communication of natural sciences with materialism. Therefore behind it, in principle far from direct active participation in political events, the reputation «the thorough materialist was approved, to-ry tries to carry out materialism not only in science, but also to the life».
I. M. Sechenov's activity in many respects promoted development of domestic scientific medicine. Its theoretical works and views exerted huge impact on formation of progressive ideas of the Russian doctors. They promoted development fiziol. the directions in psychiatry, neurology, therapies, etc.
In life and I. M. Sechenov's activity lines of the great scientist-thinker and the outstanding teacher, the tutor of creative youth were harmoniously combined. He aimed to implement in practice of teaching physiology to students of universities the principles of experimental physiology and materialistic outlook. It possesses honor of creation of the first physiological school in Russia. Such talented scientists as B. F. Verigo, H. E. Vvedensky. V. V. Pashutin, N. P. Kravkov, G. V. Hlo-pin, I. R. Tarkhanov, M. N. Shater-nikov, A. F. Samoylov were his pupils.
I. M. Sechenov was a brilliant popular writer of an estestvennon of uchny knowledge among a general population. Tell his numerous public lectures, lectures before workers on Prechistensky courses about it, and also transfers and editing scientific and to the scientific pop лярных of books. He was a hot supporter female medical education (see). In the laboratories created by it it involved women in active scientific work. Under its management for the first time the Russian female doctors N. P. Suslova and M. A. Sechenova-Bokova prepared dokt. theses.
I. M. Sechenov was the honorary member of many scientific about-in Russia, was elected the Honorary Chairman of the first international psychological congress in Paris (1889). Versatile scientific and public work of I. M. Sechenov scarred many fields of physiology, his theoretical views and researches exerted huge impact on formation of materialistic views of the Russian doctors and physiologists. I. M. Sechenov's ideas found the world recognition and in many respects defined future development of the Soviet physiology and psychology. The 1st MMI is called a name of I. M. Sechenov.
Works: Materials for future physiology of alcoholic intoxication, diyes., SPb., 1860; Autobiographical notes, M., 1907, 1952; Collected works, t. 1 — 2, M., 1907 — 1908; Chosen works, M., 1935; Chosen works, t. 1 — 2, M., 1952 — 1956; Lectures on physiology, M., 1974.
Bibliography: Anokhin P. K. From Descartes to Pavlov, page 70, M., 1945; Artyomov H. M. Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov, 1829 — 1905, Bibliogr. index, L., 1979; Vvedensky H. E. Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov, Works C. - Peter-burgsk. about-va scientists, t. 36, century 2, page 1, 1906; Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov (To the 150 anniversary since birth), under the editorship of P. G. Kostiuk, etc., M., 1980; To and - V. M. Mirovozzreniye's rutting I. M. Sechenova, M., 1948; Koshtoyants X. Page, I. M. Sechenov, M., 1950; Kuzmin M. K., Makarov V. A. and And in and to and V. P.'s N, I. M. Sechenov and medical science, M., 1979; Sechenov I. M. and materialistic psychology, under the editorship of S. L. Rubenstein, M., 1957; Sh and-ternikov M. N. Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov, Scientific word, No. 10, page 23, 1905; Yaroshevsky M. G. Sechenov and world psychological thought, M., 1981.
V. A. Makarov.