The SCOTTISH ENTsEFALYT
(a synonym the Scottish encephalomyelitis of sheep) — the infectious disease affecting preferential sheep is more rare than pigs, cows and horses and only occasionally the person.
Is registered since the beginning of 19 century in Scotland, Ireland, Northern and Southwest England. A disease-producing factor — the virus close in the antigenic relation to a virus of a tick-borne encephalitis (see a tick-borne Encephalitis). Source of a contagium more often are sheep. As a natural tank and a carrier of a virus serve ixodic mites (ohm.) — Ixodes ricinus. Transovarial transfer of a virus at mites is not described. An additional tank in the nature — the Scottish partridges and deer. The person can catch on pastures, in sheep-breeding farms during attack of the ticks infected with a virus.
The pathogeny of a disease and pathological anatomy at the person are not studied.
Diseases of the person are observed very seldom. An incubation interval — 5 — 14 days. The disease proceeds dvukhfazno. The beginning is acute, body temperature increases to 39 — 40 °, the headache is noted. The meningeal syndrome (muscle tension of a nape, a bilateral symptom of Ker-niga, etc.), a hyperesthesia, and also signs of damage of a cerebellum — dizziness, the unsteady gait, a nystagmus are occasionally observed (see). The first phase of a disease lasts apprx. 2 weeks. Then the health of the patient improves, normalized temperature. In several days the second phase of a disease develops. Again body temperature increases, the headache, meningeal symptoms amplify, seldom there are symptoms of encephalitis, drowsiness is noted, in hard cases there comes paralysis of extremities. In cerebrospinal liquid (see) increase in amount of protein, and also cells at the expense of lymphocytes is found. The general duration of a disease — 4 — 6 grandfather.
The diagnosis is established on the basis epidemiol. anamnesis (visit of the center), wedge, pictures and results of laboratory researches. Crucial importance in establishment of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis results of reaction of binding complement (see), reactions of braking of hemagglutination (see I eat agglutination), neutralization tests have allocation of a virus from blood or cerebrospinal liquid of the patient, and also (see. Virologic researches).
Symptomatic treatment; besides, appoint intravenous administration of isotonic solution of sodium chloride, 5% of solution of glucose, a reopoli-ulyukin, etc. (see. Disintoxication therapy), and also lasixum, Mannitolum (see Degidr atatsionny therapy).
the Forecast favorable, an absolute recovery, without recurrence.
Prevention of diseases of people is based on protection against attack of mites in the center: carrying out most surveys and mutually surveys, wearing protective clothes (see a tick-borne Encephalitis), use of repellents (see).
Bibliography: Levkovich E. N, etc. Viruses of a complex of a tick-borne encephalitis, L., 1967; Tropical diseases, under the editorship of E. P. Shuvalova, M., 1979; Pool W. And., Brownlee A. Wilson D. R. The etiology of louping-ill, J. comp. Path., v. 43, p. 253, 1930; Rivers T. M. a. Schwentker F. F. Louping ill in man, J. exp. Med., v. 59, p. 669, 1934; Viral and rickettsial infections of man, ed. by F. L. Horsfall a. I. Tamm, Philadelphia, 1965. S.G. Drozdov, B. F. Semenov.