From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SHVYOYTSER Albert (Schweitzer Albert, 1875 — 1965) is the doctor, the Protestant missionary, the philosopher and the public figure; doctor of philosophy (1899), doctor of theology (1900), doctor of medicine (1913), Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1952).

In 1900 f-you, and in 1913 medical ended philosophical and theological f-t of Strasb urgsky un-that. Studied also in high fur boots of Berlin and Paris.

Protesting against anti-humanity bourgeois about-va with its colonizer, chauvinistic attitude towards other people, A. Schweitzer refused career of the musician and the theologist, having devoted the life of profession of a physician, to service to people. Together with the wife, the nurse Elaine Breslaou, it on own means founded in 1913 hospital in Lambarene (see Gabon). With not numerous on - moshchnikami-enthusiasts A. Schweitzer during half a century worked in the conditions of the rainforest, rendering medical aid sick with leprosy, malaria, dysentery, a fram-beziya and other diseases. All its means, the fees for books and concerts, to-rye it gave during rare visits of Europe, donations of friends and philanthropists went for development of hospital. At the expense of the Nobel Prize he constructed leper colony in Lambarene. Selfless profession of a physician and courageous public performances against militarism in the years of the first and second world wars, against nuclear threat during the post-war period got to it authority of the consecutive, basic humanist, the person of rare courage and honesty. It gained wide popularity and popularity also as the organist, the musicologist and the theorist of culture.

Outlook And. Schweitzer, in Krom philosophical, ethical and medical aspects of the attitude towards the person, to reality are closely connected, it is based on three main ideas — worthinesses of life, the highest purpose of the person, uniqueness of the personality (see Humanity). After long spiritual searches A. Schweitzer formulated the philosophical and ethical idea of awe of life. However

A. Schweitzer did not understand that life of bourgeois society to which it belonged is under construction on the conflict of interests and, eventually, on class antagonism. Therefore the optimistic understanding of future mankind at A. Schweitzer had religioznoidealistichesky coloring, contacted not radical reorganization of the capitalist public relations, and moral improvement of certain people and all culture by an example and Christ's image.

A. Schweitzer was an honourable doctor of many foreign high fur boots, and also the member of a row scientific about - century. Monuments in Weimar (GDR) and Gyunsbakh are established to it, on his Rhodinum in Kayzersberg (Austria) the memorial museum is open.

Works: Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu, Tubingen, 1913; Kulturphilosophie, Bd 1 — 2, Miinchen, 1925 — 1926; And. S. Bach, nep. with it., M., 1934, 1964; Le probleme de I’ethique dans revolution de la pensee humaine, P., 1953; Friede oder Atomkrieg, Miinchen, 1958; Aus meinem Leben und Denken, B., 1964; Die Lehre der Ehrf-urcht von dem Leben, B., 1963; Ausgewahlte Werke, Bd 1 — 5, B., 1971; Culture and ethics, the lane with it., M., 1973; Gesammelte Werke, Bd 1 — 5, Miinchen, 1974; Letters from Lambarene, the lane with it., L., 1978.

Bibliography: Albert Schweitzer is the great humanist of the 20th century, under the editorship of V. A. Kar-pushin, M., 1970; e t of t and N of of. Meetings with Albert Schweitzer, the lane with it., M., 1967; Freier P. G. Albert Schweitzer, Kartina of life, the lane with it., M., 1984; Albert Schweitzer, Sein Denken und sein Weg, hrsg. v. H. W. Bahr, Tiibingen, 1962; Grabs R. Albert Schweitzer — Dienst am Menschen, Halle, 1964; Z w e i g S., Feschotte J. u. Grabs R. Albert Schweitzer — Genie der Menschlich-keit, Frankfurt am Main — Hamburg, 1961.

V. T. Ganzhin.