From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SCHWANN Theodor (Schwann Theodor, 1810 — 1882) is the German anatomist, the histologist and the physiologist, the doctor of medicine (1834), the creator of the cellular theory.

Since 1829 studied natural sciences and medicine in Bonn, the Würzburg and Berlin. In 1833 ended medical f-t Bonn un-that.

In 1834 — 1839 worked under the leadership of I. Müller in anatomiche-skommuzy Berlin un-that. Since 1839 he lodged in Belgium where the hl was engaged. obr. pedagogical activity. In 1839 — 1848 professor of anatomy in Luvena. In 1848 — 1880 in Liege un-those was professor of department of the general and special anatomy in the beginning, and then directed department of physiology and a comparative anatomy.

T. Shvann received degree of the doctor of medicine for work about influence of air on development of ova of birds (1834). Investigating processes of digestion, T. Shvann disproved the opinion on digestive value of gastric slime accepted then and discovered digestive enzyme (1836), to-ry called pepsin (see). Participation of barmy fungi in processes of fermentation was shown them. T. Shvann's works about a thin structure of blood vessels, unstriated muscles and nerves are known. In nerve fibrils he described the cover surrounding the axial cylinder and came to a conclusion that it consists of separate cells; since then these structures call by his name (a schwannian cover, or a neurilemma; schwannian cells, or lemmocytes). To them it is established that nails have a lamellar structure.

Having got acquainted in 1837 with M. Shleyden researching a role of a kernel in a cell of plants, T. Shvann reconsidered the histologic material which is saved up by then and established similarity in the structure of the cells of a chord and a cartilage of animals to plant cells. On this basis he came to a conclusion about existence of the uniform cellular principle in a structure and development of vegetable and animal organisms. In 1838 T. Shvann published on this matter three draft reports, and in 1839 published the book «Microscopic Examination about Compliance in a Structure and Growth of Animals and Plants», in a cut formulated original positions of the cellular theory (see).

T. Shvann, as well as Broun (R. Brown, 1831), considered a kernel a constant element of a cell. It the first described in kernels of zooblasts kernels (see the Kernel of a cell, the Kernel), the Crimea he attached great value. At the same time specific ideas of T. Shvann of cells and their development corresponded to the level of scientific knowledge of that time and were wrong in a nek-swarm of degree. He considered the most important part of a cell its cover, but not contents. Imagined development of cells in the form of the process reminding crystallization in homogenous mucous matter — «cytoblastema»: in the beginning there are kernels, on their basis the kernel forms, and then mucous weight clothes in circles of a kernel a cover, and the new cell appears. Despite it, the cellular theory, i.e. recognition of cells created by T. Shvann biol. a basis of unity of all organic world, kept value and in a crust, time. T. Engels called this theory along with the law of energy conversion and theory of evolution among three great opening, thanking the Crimea natural sciences «turned from empirical science into theoretical, becoming at generalization of the received results the rule of materialistic knowledge of the nature» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd prod., t. 20, page 511).

T. Shvann wrote that in formation of his ideas the big role was played by conversations with M. Shleyden developing a thought of a community of an origin of cells in the theory of phytogenesis. Proceeding from it, many researchers consider creators of the cellular theory of T. Shvann and M. of Iiileydena. However F. Studnichka (Czechoslovakia) and 3. S. Katsnelson (USSR) showed that the priority in this question belongs T. Shvan - well.

T. Shvann was a member of Royal academy of Sciences in Brussels (1841),

London royal about-va (1879), the Parisian academy of Sciences (1879).

In 1909 in Naas the monument was established to T. Shvann.

Works: De necessitate ayopv atmosphaerici ad evolutionem pulli in ovo incubito, Bero-lini, 1834; Vorlaufige Mittheilung betref-fend Versuche iiber die Weingahrung und Faulniss, Ann. Phys. Chem. (Lpz.), Bd 41, S. 184, 1837; Mikroskopische Untersuchun-gen iiber die Ubereinstimmung in der Struk-tur und dem Wachsthum der Thiere und Pflanzen, B., 1839 (.rus. the lane, M. — L.


Bibliography: Katsnelson 3. C.

Hundred years of the doctrine about a cell, M. — L., 1939; Causey G. The cell of Schwann, Edinburgh — L., 1960; S u d h o f f K. Theodor Schwann, Miinch. med. Wschr., S. 2703 1910.