From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SCHOOL, hygienic requirements. Highway — the educational and educational institution providing all-round, harmonious development of younger generation. In Sh. children gain knowledge of fundamentals of sciences, in it labor and polytechnical preparation is carried out, the communistic outlook forms, the esthetic and physical training promoting preservation and promotion of health is provided.

Shall be located with highway in the building answering a gigabyte. to requirements and to have the land plot, sufficient on the area. Mass construction of schools in our country is carried out according to the standard projects developed according to the Construction norms and rules on design of comprehensive schools and boarding schools approved by the State Committee for Construction of the USSR in coordination with M3 of the USSR and the Ministry of Public Education of the USSR.

The major criterion at the choice of the location of Sh. is the radius of service, to-ry in the cities shall not exceed 0,5 km; and in rural areas about 3 km can be increased; besides, the preferential age of pupils and climatic features of the district of construction is considered.

According to the nomenclature accepted for standard design, the main type of the school building the building of comprehensive, labor, polytechnical school with prolonged in the afternoon is. The number of student places in Sh. depends on its type (initial, incomplete average and average).

Obligatory part Sh. is the school land plot. The area of the land plot of comprehensive schools depending on the number of pupils shall be equal to 0,3 — 4 hectares. The site is divided into the following zones; sports, educational-experimental, recreation area and economic. The sports zone makes 35 — 40% of the land plot and includes platforms for sports with a ball, gymnastics and occupations track and field athletics. The educational-experimental zone occupies about 25% of land area; its appointment — providing a visual teaching method of teaching natural sciences and development at pupils of skills of page - x. work. The recreation area includes certain platforms for outdoor games of pupils of initial, middle and senior classes, and also the platform for quiet rest. Platforms for outdoor games are calculated on each class: for children of 1 — 4

classes — on 100 l2, for children

of 5 — 8 classes — on 25 sq.m. The economic zone is located far from sports and playgrounds, is protected with green plantings and has independent entrance. On it economic constructions and a dustbin are placed. The distance from a dustbin to doors and windows Sh. shall be not less than 25 m. Under green plantings 40 — 50% of land area shall be allotted. Width of a green strip on border of the site shall make 1,5 m, and from the street — not less than 6 m.

Boarding school 455

On existing rules optimum are three-storyed school buildings. In the schoolhouse several exits and the device of the decentralized clothes shall be projected that, in particular, gives the chance correctly to organize quarantine actions at emergence inf. diseases.

The main architectural and planning requirements to modern school buildings come down to sufficient isolation of separate groups of rooms and creation of convenient communication between them and the site. It promotes the maximum division of big children's collective into separate age groups for providing the differentiated mode of educational and extracurricular activities of pupils of different age.

The rooms intended for pupils of initial classes shall be placed in the isolated block or the compartment expected

3 — 4 classes, conveniently connected with the dining room and the site.

At a room method of training it is important that the arrangement of offices on separate disciplines and laboratories provided the minimum expense of time for transitions from an office to an office (it shall not exceed 3 min.). Fullestly the block and section structure of school buildings meets these requirements.

The school building combines three basic groups of rooms: educational, rooms for cultural and mass work and the servicing appointment. Educational rooms — classes, offices, laboratories with the respective recreational halls, rooms for labor training and vocational guidance, and also group of uchebnosportivny rooms. Rooms of cultural and mass appointment combine the assembly hall, a class of singing and music, the technical center, rooms of public organizations, library with a reading room, rooms for kruzhkovy work and for the organization of day-care centers. The group of rooms of the servicing appointment includes administrative rooms, the dining room, a first-aid post, etc.

The main in school buildings are educational rooms. Correct, about a gigabyte. positions, arrangement of furniture and the equipment in them is provided at the sizes of a class 64 of sq.m, an office — 66 sq.m, laboratories — 70 sq.m. The distance from a blackboard to the last number of tables or school desks shall not exceed 8 — 9 m. Height of a ceiling of educational rooms shall be not less than 3 m.

For labor training and vocational guidance in Sh. there are educational workshops: on

processing of fabrics, for occupations cookery of 32 — 66 sq.m, an uchebnometodichesky office on vocational guidance of pupils (the area of 66 sq.m), the combined workshop on metal working and a tree (the area of 66 — 82 sq.m).

The area of the educational gyms intended for carrying out physical education classes and occupations of sports sections shall be calculated so that not less than 4 sq.m were the share of one pupil; height of a ceiling

is from 3 to 6 m, depending on the area of the hall (at the area of 144 sq.m — 3 m, 162 sq.m — 5,4 m, 288 sq.m and more — 6 m).

The area of lunch halls in general education Sh. is accepted at the rate of 0,65 sq.m on 1 place (proceeding from service of 100% of pupils in four turns).

The office of the doctor integrated with the medical room, of 12 — 15 sq.m is a part of rooms of medical service. In addition to an office of the doctor, the office of the dentist of 12 zh2 is sometimes provided.

See also Ventilation, Lighting, Heating, the School desk.

Bibliography: Antropova of M. V. Gui

hyena of children and teenagers, M., 1982; Hygiene of children and teenagers, under the editorship of V. N. Kar-dashenko, M., 1980; The Management for doctors of schools, under the editorship of G. N. Serdyukovskaya, M., 1983. G. N. Serdyukovskaya.