SCHILLER Friedrich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SCHJLLJER Friedrich (Schiller Johann Christof Friedrich, 1759 — 1805) is the great German poet, the playwright, the theorist of art of the age of Enlightenment, the historian, the doctor by training.

F. Schiller was born in Maybakhe, in a family of the regimental paramedic. Got an education in Vyurtenbergsky military academy where at first studied on legal (1773 — 1775), and then on medical department. In 1780 gained the diploma of the doctor and it was appointed the regimental doctor in the Stuttgart garrison. In September, 1782 self-willedally left service and ran from the duchy Vyurtenbergsko-go. From now on and until the end of life he was engaged in exclusively literary and scientific activity. In 1789 — 1791 held a position of extraordinary professor of history in Yensky university.

F. Schiller — one of founders of the German classical literature. His works played an important role in formation of national consciousness of Germans, in fight for the uniform German state. It opposed to semi-feudal stagnation, a political arbitrariness and social injustice the idea of democracy, a dream about harmonious about-ve, not aware neither classes, nor estates. The humanistic and optimistic orientation of creativity

of F. Schiller made him the most popular representative of the German classical literature in many countries of Europe, including in Russia where each rise of revolutionary movement was followed by new hobby for F. Schiller's poetry.

As one of the largest historians of the age of Enlightenment F. Schiller developed the idea about continuous interrelation of historical events, considering each of them within uniform historical process. Investigating general history from its initial stages till the time, F. Schiller noted continuous progress in development of society, to-ry connected with creative activity of people. The state, laws, according to F. Schiller, are important and necessary only if they promote the movement of a civilization forward or at least, without braking it, develop all forces put in the person. Being guided by this situation, he with huge persuasiveness and passion showed a pernicious role of wars in the history of mankind, with all determination proclaimed the idea of peaceful development of the German people, the idea of infinite peaceful progress of all mankind. F. Schiller sympathetically met a message about the Great French revolution. At the same time, approving overthrow of a feudal order, he blamed Louis XVI's execution, in a cut saw only violence. Rejecting revolutionary means of a public reorganization, F. Schiller put forward the program of esthetic education, according to a cut the way to freedom conducts through harmony and beauty.

Medical activity F. Schiller it was not as fruitful as literary, esthetic and historical, but nevertheless is of interest to history of medicine. In the years of study he dreamed of A. Galler's glory, studied his works, seriously was fond of physiology, psychology, physical therapy. First medical work F. Schiller — the thesis «The philosophy of physiology» testifies not only to erudition, but also

to originality and independence of his natural-science views. The thesis was recognized by professors of academy unsatisfactory in hl. obr. because in it F. Schiller proved the idea of interrelation and interconditionality of corporal and spiritual human nature contradicting traditional ideas of «a body as a perishable cover of immortal soul». The spontaneous materialism of F. Schiller with a bigger force was shown in his second thesis «Experience of a research of a question of communication between animal and spiritual human nature».

In it. using extensive literature, he not only proved the provision on interference of physiological and mental processes, but also considered questions of curative and guarding action of a dream, a role of emotions in emergence and an outcome patol. process, one of the first estimated to lay down. impact of work, having called it Beschafti-gungstherapie. This work of F. Schiller was highly appreciated by the famous Russian physiologist I. R. Tarkhanov; a number of the provisions stated in it received further scientific justification.

The progressive natural-science views inherent in F. Schiller observation and humanity created all premises for fruitful profession of a physician, however the barracks situation of the Stuttgart garrison suppressing any creativity led to the fact that it forever left service and occupation medicine.

Works: Versuch tiber den Zusammenhang der tierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen, Stuttgart, 1780; Collected works, t. 1 — 7, M., 1955 — 1957.

Bibliography: Asmus V. F.

Kai's German esthetics of the 18th century, page 259, M., 1963; Yu. V Ions. Friedrich Schiller's works as doctor, his medical theses and disease, Klin, medical, t. 59, No. 6, page 112, 1981; Lozinsky JI.,

Friedrich Schiller, M., 1960; T e r -

Akopyan I. Schiller as the historian, in book: Schiller F. of SOBR. soch., the lane with it., t. 5, page 529, M., 1957; Schiller F. P., Friedrich Schiller, Life and creativity, M., 1955. A. M. Grindings.