SCANNING radio isotope — a way of obtaining the two-dimensional image reflecting distribution of radio pharmaceutical drug in an organism. It is used in a wedge, practice for a research kidneys (see), liver (see), lungs (see), thyroid gland (see) and pancreas (see), detection of tumors and their metastasises in brain (see), skeleton (see), etc. S. carry out by means of the radio diagnostic unit — the scanner (English scanner the developing device) which is carrying out line-by-line movement of the detector over the studied part of a body (fig. 1).
At S. automatic registration is carried out by the moving detector of impulses of radiation, to-rye then by means of the special electronic block are transformed to shaped marks in usual paper. Shaped lines, gradually filling the field of registration, form a skanogramma. On density of shading and its distribution judge extent of accumulation of radio pharmaceutical drug (RFP) in various sites of the studied area.
In color S.'s systems strokes of a skanogramma have various color. To every color a certain number of impulses corresponds in unit of time; depending on a radiation intensity color of strokes changes (tsvetn. tab., Art. 368, fig. 1-4).
Assessment skanogramm is made by the visual analysis of the image. At the same time define situation, a form and the sizes of both all storage site of RFP, and the studied body, reveal deviations from distribution of RFP’ normal. Equitability and intensity of accumulation of RFP in the studied object are of great importance. In the analysis skanogramm specially reveal sites of excess or insufficient accumulation (the «hot» or «cold» centers), to-rye are caused by existence (not absorbing) sites functioning (absorbing) or not functioning in body or area of a body (fig. 2).
More exact quantitative and qualitative analysis skanogramm is carried out by means of electronic and computing blocks, to-rymi modern high-speed scanners are supplied. During the research the patient shall keep an immovability. However it is impossible to provide an immovability of nek-ry bodies in the course of their research that leads to certain distortions of plane images. Besides, in comparison with stsintigrafiy S. — the procedure longer (on slow-acting scanners it takes about 30 — 40 min.).
Profile S. is carried out by means of the profile scanner, one or two sensors to-rogo move over the explored area in one linear direction. At the same time instead of the shaped image of the studied body on a paper strip the curve reflecting distribution of RFP in a body of the patient in the direction of the movement of the sensor is drawn. Profile S. is applied by hl. obr. for studying of distribution of RFP in a body of the patient and in a skeleton for the purpose of search of clinically not defined metastasises and for detection large patol. centers. Its advantage is speed of a research (2 — 3 min.).
Recently S. is more and more forced out by a stsintigrafiya on the gamma cameras supplied with computers, to-rye allow to obtain in one step information on distribution of RFP in body and to investigate the fast-proceeding processes (a blood stream, ventilation of the lungs, etc.). Along with gamma cameras (see. Radio isotope diagnostic units ) in a crust, time begin to use special positron cameras; with their help make positron S., using a positron the radiating substances. The camera registers the gamma quanta formed in an organism at annihilation of a positron (see. Annihilation ).
See also Radio isotope diagnosis .
Bibliography: Zubovsky G. A. and Pavlov of V. G. Skennirovaniye of internals, M., 1973.
G. A. Zubovsky.