From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SANTOBANE (DDT; synonym: gesarol, dikofan, duoteks, Neocidum, pentachlorine, Pentacidum, drug SS-5, chlorphenothane), 4,4 '-dikhlordifeniltrikhlormetilmetan — an insecticide, highly toxic for the majority of arthropods.

It is synthesized in 1874; insecticidal properties are open in 1939. Pure drug — white crystal matter with a slight aromatic smell; t ° pl 108,5 — 109 °, t ° kip 185 ° at 1 mm of mercury. Let's not dissolve in water, we will well dissolve in organic solvents. 4,4 has insecticidal properties' isomer, contents to-rogo makes 75-76% in DDT t ° pl 74,5 — 93 °; poorly letuch. It is extremely resistant to influence of environmental factors. DDT contact and intestinal insecticide. Apply at fight against arthropod carriers of causative agents of infectious diseases. Release in the form of 5,5% of dust, 30% of the moistened powders, 20% of a concentrate of mineral oil emulsion, 50% of paste.

DDT — lipotropic poison, gets the fabrics and bodies especially rich with fats at all, is allocated from an organism with a stake and milk, to a lesser extent with urine; has sharply expressed cumulative properties.

In the mechanism of toxic action, apparently, the leading role is played by a fabric hypoxia and the disturbance of energy balance accompanying it. DDT causes functional disturbances not only in c. N of page, but also directly in its nerve fibrils, and also in receptors of skin and skeletal muscles. A toxic dose for the person — 10 — 15 mg/kg, deadly — 70 — 85 mg/kg. Acute intoxication is characterized by headaches, dizziness, extremity pains, nausea, vomiting, pains in an upper part of a stomach, tachycardia, short wind, a tremor, spasms, coma. Death from an apnoea in especially hard cases comes in 1 — 2 hour.

First aid: calling of vomiting, a gastric lavage, salt laxative, siphon enemas, hypodermic introduction fiziol, solution and calmatives, if necessary — the drugs exciting breath and action of the heart (it is impossible to enter adrenaline), at sharp excitement — Chlorali hydras in an enema. Symptoms hron, poisonings: loss of appetite, dizziness, headaches, bystry intellectual and physical. fatigue, convulsive extremity pains on the course of nervous trunks, polyneurites, emotional instability, heartbeat, an asthma, pains in right hypochondrium. Hron, poisoning is followed by hepatitises, gastritises, bronchitis, functional disorders of kidneys. DDT can cause an allergic state in this connection sensitivity to repeated contacts increases. At hit in eyes causes severe pain, conjunctivitis, an ophthalmia. Eczematic damages of skin of allergic character are possible. DDT passes through a placenta. Existence of DDT in milk of women leads to accumulation of an insecticide in an organism of the child that negatively influences development of the child.

Treatment symptomatic using the desensibilizing means. Transferred acute and hron, poisoning is recommended the diet enriched with lipotropic substances, salts of calcium, vitamins.

In tissues of the died people contacting to pesticide the considerable maintenance of DDT and its metabolites, the greatest number in marrow, hypodermic cellulose and an epiploon is revealed.

Gigabyte. standards: the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in air of a working zone — 0,1 mg/m 3 , in water of household use — ODES of mg/l, the admissible residual quantity (ARQ) in vegetables and fruit — 0,5 mg/kg, in tobacco — 0,7 mg/kg, in other products, including in milk, oil, meat, eggs, berries — the maintenance of DDT is not allowed.

Wide use of DDT in various fields of agriculture led to pollution of foodstuff of plant and animal origin by it.

Stability in the environment and the expressed cumulative properties, ability to be allocated from an organism with milk, to cause in minute quantities hron, poisoning formed the basis for prohibition in the USSR of processing by drugs DDT of a cattle (1962) and the fructifying cultures. DDT is excluded from «The list of the chemical and biological means of pest control, diseases and weeds recommended for use in agriculture of the USSR».

DDT in the medicolegal relation

DDT can be the cause of acute poisoning that it must be kept in mind court during the carrying out. - medical examinations. At poisoning of the person with drugs DDT the wedge, pictures, excitement, convulsive reductions of muscles, digestive disturbances matter feature.

At external examination of a corpse characteristic changes do not come to light.

At court. - medical necropsy the degeneration of cells and kernels of c are noted. N page, a degeneration and a necrosis of cells of a liver, hypostasis of kidneys, dot hemorrhages under an epicardium and an endocardium, a miodegeneration of muscle fibers, a hyperemia and hemorrhages in a brain, lungs, a trachea.

For court. - the medical conclusions about poisoning of DDT data on definition it in bodies of a corpse taking into account possible accumulation it in an organism are of great importance during lifetime.

Definition of DDT in cadaveric material is made by extraction by organic solvent (ether) with the subsequent carrying out elimination reactions of chlorine during the heating with spirit solution of caustic alkali or hydrogen. The formed polynitroderivatives are found reaction with solution of a metilan of sodium in methanol — reaction product is painted in blue-violet color. Quantitative definition is made argentometric by amount of the chipped-off chlorine in various conditions. It is recommended to apply also gas chromatography.

See also Desinfectants , Pesticides .

Bibliography: Vashkov V. I., Pogodina L. N. and Sazonov N. A. DDT and its use, M., 1955; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, p.1, page 330, L., 1976; Maier-Bode G. The remains of pesticides, the lane with it., page 203, M., 1966; Millers of H. N. Himiya of pesticides, page 85, M., 1968; Shvaykova M. D. Judicial chemistry, page 78, M., 1965; Sh and c to about in and A. P. and Ryazanov of R. A. Gigiyen and toxicology of pesticides, page 87, M., 1975.

L. I. Medved; A. F. Rubtsov (court. medical).