From Big Medical Encyclopedia

SANITATION OF THE ORAL CAVITY (Latin sanatio treatment, improvement) — a complex of actions for improvement of the bodies of an oral cavity which are carried out as prevention of dental diseases at children and adults.

For the first time S.'s carrying out of the item of river at school students was proposed in 1889 in Russia by A. K. Limberg, however realization of his idea in life became possible only after Great October socialist revolution. The big contribution to development of this problem was made by P. G. Dauge, N. I. Agapov, A. I. Evdokimov, A. I. Rybakov, T. F. Vinogradova, etc.

S. is carried out by the item of river by carrying out regular surveys of an oral cavity (see. Roth, oral cavity ), in time to-rykh hold a complex of medical events for elimination of the found pathology, namely: treatment of caries (see. Caries of tooth ) and elimination of defects of tissues of teeth of various etiology (see. Sealing of teeth ), removal of the destroyed teeth and their roots (see. Exodontia ), dental calculus (see), antiinflammatory therapy of diseases of a regional parodont (see. Ulitis , Periodontosis ), preparation of an oral cavity for prosthetics or orthodontic treatment (see. Orthodontic methods of treatment ). According to S.'s testimonies the item of river should be completed prosthetics (see. Dentures ), then it is possible to consider an oral cavity debrided. However at S. children of the item of river does not provide the obligatory finished orthodontic treatment because during the last (sometimes within 2,5 years) S. to the child should be carried out by the item of river repeatedly (from two to eight times).

Sometimes according to S.'s testimonies rubles carry out the item under anesthesia (see). On the basis of the panoramic roentgenogram (see. Pantomografiya ) or series of roentgenograms of separate teeth the sequence of necessary medical actions is defined previously. During an introduction anesthesia it is necessary to process teeth with hron. periodontitis (see); processing of carious cavities of average depth (especially III and V classes) requires the deepest anesthesia; exodontia, especially milk, and also treatment of diseases parodonta (see) it is necessary to carry out at an exit of the patient from an anesthesia.

Allocate planned S. to the item of river, to-ruyu carry out according to the scheduled plan made for a year and also S. by the item of river on negotiability (it is carried out at the initiative of the patient). Planned S. the item ruble is carried out by everything to children of organized collectives: in preschool child care facilities, schools, nursing homes, sanatoria and summer camps, hospitals, etc. Besides, planned S. the ruble is carried out by the item to young men of preinduction age, recruits and the military personnel, and also the following groups of adult population: to pregnant women, persons with hron. diseases (rheumatism and other collagenic diseases, hron. tonsillitis, respiratory diseases, went. - kish. path, liver, allergic, cardiovascular diseases, etc.). Planned S. ruble is carried out by the item to the persons working in the conditions promoting developing of caries of teeth and periodontosis (production of acids, the confectionery industry, etc.).

Organizational forms C. of the item of river are defined by working conditions stomatol. institutions and a doctor-ostomy-tologa, the item of river which is carrying out S. Distinguish centralized p the river decentralized planned S.'s forms of N. At the centralized planned S.'s form of the item of river survey and treatment of above-mentioned groups of the population carry out in medical institution where they are invited in advance. Doctors carry out sanitation in the workplaces with use of the stationary equipment for diagnosis and treatment. However at this form of service patients waste time for expectation, transport for their delivery in medical institution and back is required.

At the decentralized planned S.'s form of the item of river reception of patients is carried out in stationary an ostomy tolite. the offices equipped in preschool child care facilities, schools, higher education institutions, technical schools, clinics for women, hospitals at the enterprises etc. This form C. of the item of river is carried out with carrying out all necessary manipulations, and also with the minimum loss by the patient of personal and operating (educational) time. The decentralized planned S.'s form of the item of river can be carried out by a teamwork and in mobile stomatol. offices.

Frequency (frequency rate) of planned S. of the item of river is defined by intensity of the leader stomatol. diseases (caries, periodontosis, etc.). At children depending on a degree of activity of caries planned S. the ruble is carried out by the item one, two or three times a year. The children suffering from an ulitis look round once a year; in case of existence of the ulitis interfaced to anomalies bite (see) and other pathology of an oral cavity, by S. the item the ruble is carried out 2 — 3 times a year during the entire period of elimination of anomalies of a bite and other diseases. If diseases of a regional parodont (an ulitis or periodontosis) are a syndrome of the general diseases, such as histiocytoses (see), neutropenias (see. Neutropenias hereditary ), a diabetes mellitus (see. diabetes mellitus ), etc., planned S. the ruble is carried out by the item each 3 — 4 months.

In the presence of indications at adult population planned S. the ruble is carried out by the item two times, and according to individual indications — three times a year. To the persons which are on treatment in a hospital, sanitation of an oral cavity is carried out in coordination with the attending physician.

At assessment of efficiency of planned S. of the item of river it is necessary to consider degree of coverage of the attached contingent of the population, percent of debrided persons from among persons in need in it, and also respect for the established S.'s frequency rate of the item of river depending on a type of pathology.

After achievement of a high level of these indicators at each survey it is necessary to consider decrease in number of the persons needing treatment, reduction of quantity of the dropped-out seals, primary carious cavities and a recurrence of caries. Besides, the number of the pulpless and extracted teeth, decrease in complications on 1000 debrided is differentially considered. The main document at planned S. of the item of river is the sanatsionny card of the school student (form No. 267), edges can be used also for any group of adult population.

The most effective is the decentralized planned S.'s form of the item of river, at a cut overseeing by the patient is carried out for a number of years by the same doctor that gives it the chance, observing patol. process in dynamics to expand the volume of medical and preventive actions.

Bibliography: Vinogradova T. F. Medical examination of children at the stomatologist, M., 1978, bibliogr.; D and at e P. G. Social fundamentals of the Soviet stomatology, M., 1933; Evdokimov A. I. Planned dental medical examination (sanitation) of children's and adult population, Works of the 4th Vsesoyuz. congress stomatol., page 59, M., 1964; About the organization of planned preventive sanitation of an oral cavity at children of school and preschool age, Stomatology, No. 4, page 74, 1959; R A. I y-tanks. Bases of dental prevention, M., 1968; it, Dental prevention at children — a basis of the organization of the dental help to the population, Works of the 5th Vsesoyuz. congress stomatol., page 22, M., 1970.

T. F. Vinogradova.