SANGER Frederik (Sanger Frederick, sort. in 1918) — the English biochemist, the member of the London royal society (1954). the honorary member of the American academy of Sciences and arts (1958) and some other academies and scientific about-in, the Nobel Prize laureate (1958, 1980).
St. Jonah in Cambridge left college and since 1939 worked in Cambridge un-those. In 1940 — 1943 performed a number of works on studying of metabolism of a lysine, for to-rye in 1943 it was awarded degrees of the doctor of philosophy. Since 1951 the head of department of chemistry of protein of laboratory of molecular biology.
F. Sanger developed a method of definition of the amino-acid sequence of proteins and primary structure of a molecule (insulin) was for the first time established for what to it in 1958 the Nobel Prize in chemistry is awarded. The principle of a method of Sanger consists in chromatographic fractionation of the blocked fragments of protein. In 1980 to F. Sanger the Nobel Prize in chemistry for development of a method of definition of the nucleotide sequence of DNA and establishment of structure of DNA of a phage 2) - beta D - fruktofuranozid) | sucrose for the second time was awarded (alfa-D-glyukopiranozil->(1-2) - beta D - fruktofuranozid) ]]
The page is the most widespread disaccharide of the higher plants, a transport form of the majority carbohydrates (see). Especially many S. contains in a sugarcane, sugar beet, nek-ry types of a maple, a sorghum and other plants; from extracts of homogenates of these plants in the industrial ways receive S. V to urine, kidneys and seed bubbles of the person and other mammals only the trace number of S. of an endogenous origin are found.
The page represents colourless crystal substance about a pier. t is powerful (weighing) 342,3, pl 185 — 186 °, ud. rotation of the plane of the polarized light [a]D = +66,5 °. The page at a temperature over 200 ° decays (process of caramelization) with formation of so-called karamely. Page it is insoluble in non-polar organic solvents, in absolute methanol and ethanol, the rastvorima in water is sparingly soluble in pyridine, ethyl acetate, dimethyl formamide, aniline, water solutions of ethanol and methanol, etc., well. The village has no the reducing properties therefore it is steady against effect of alkalis, but easily is exposed to hydrolytic decomposition under influence to - t and enzymes invertases (see) with formation of D-glucose and D-fructose, at the same time there is a change ud. rotations of solution C. (inversion). With alkali metals C. forms saccharates. It is not exposed to mutarotation, with phenylhydrazines does not form osazones. S.'s synthesis in plants and microorganisms happens by a transglikozilirova-niya, and phosphates and nukleotiddifosfata can be donors of a glucose unit glucose (see), napr, uridindifosfatglyukoza.
Qualitative and quantitative test of S. in biol. liquids (blood, urine, etc.) make by training during the heating in acid medium of furfurals, to-rye with resorcin (see. Selivanova test ), antrono, beta and indolyacetic to - that, thiobarbituric to - that, etc. form colored compounds. In mix C. most often define after acid (with liquid of Felinga, so. naz. Holmen's test) or enzymic hydrolysis by amount of the formed glucose.
The page is one of the main food disaccharides, it is hydrolyzed hydrochloric acid (see) a gastric juice and invertase of a mucous membrane of a small bowel of the person. At genetically caused defect or lack of invertase C. of food, without being split, comes to blood, and then it is removed with urine. Thus the so-called intolerance of sucrose or an exogenous sakharozuriya is noted (see. Melituria ). At nek-ry disturbances carbohydrate metabolism (see) synthesis of sucrose considerably raises (apparently, in kidneys) that also leads to a sakharozuriya, but already endogenous origin.
See also Sugary products .
Bibliography: Kochetkov N. K., etc. Chemistry of carbohydrates, page 14, etc., M., 1967; Lenindzher A. Biochemistry, the lane with English, page 269, etc., M., 1976; H and - about in O. S. and Ott of A. Ya. Sakharoz, I. Chemistry of sucrose, Usp. biol. chemical, t. 21, page 130, 1980, bibliogr.
V. K. Gorodetsky.