«THE SALERNO CODE OF HEALTH», or «The Salerno medicine» — the didactic poem containing the set of medical knowledge is written at the beginning of 14 century by the doctor, the writer and the philosopher Arnaldo de Vilanova, one of the most glorified representatives of the Salerno medical school.
The Salerno medical school thanks to the empirical orientation managed to keep big independence in relation to the Arab medicine and the scholasticism dominating then, than other European medical schools of that time. Especially it should be noted almost total failure from astrological superstitions, the aspiration to turn observation and experience on advantage to the patient. Having studied achievements of the Salerno school, Arnaldo de Vilanova stated it to medical credo in 390 poetic lines.
It is difficult to call the book in all centuries-old history of medicine, edges would hold such glory and authority as this small treatise. The «Salerno code of health» issued for the first time in 1480 was published more than 200 times and was translated into German (1559), Italian (1662), French (1782), and also into the Polish, Czech and Dutch languages. In Russian the poem was published three times. For the first time its text (in prose translation) was published in 1960 in the collection «From History of Medicine». Two separate editions of the poem in poetic transfer from the Latin original appeared in Meditsina publishing house (see. Meditsina, publishing house ) in 1964 and 1970.
In «The Salerno code of health» data on a structure of a human body, the number of bones, teeth and vessels are provided, the main constitutional types — the sanguine person, the choleric person, the phlegmatic person and the melancholiac are characterized, advice a gigabyte is given. about, properties and qualities of foodstuff of plant and animal origin are considered, their influence on health is described and to lay down. action. Besides, the system of a healthy lifestyle — food, a dream, work, active recreation, ablution is stated. In the spirit of humoral pathology symptoms of the diseases resulting are described as then considered, from surplus or a lack of one of four liquids (vlag) of a human body and four material elements realized in them (waters, the earth, air and fire). Final part is devoted to bloodletting — the favourite medical procedure of medieval medicine, its advantages are described, and also days, favorable and adverse for this procedure, are specified.
Many hygienic instructions of «The Salerno code of health» did not lose the value and presently.
See also Meditsina .
Bibliography: Arnold from Vilanova, the Salerno code of health, 14th century, the lane with latinsk., M., 1964; Ioffe M. I. and the P e r f and with JI. M. The Salerno administration on health issues, in book: From history medical, under the editorship of P. I. Stradynya, etc., t. 3, page 197, Riga, 1960; Kovner S. G. History of medieval medicine, century 2, page 431, Kiev, 1897.
B. D. Petrov.