S-REAKTIVNYY of SQUIRRELS (synonym: phase protein, protein of an acute phase of an inflammation) — protein, contents to-rogo in blood considerably raises in an acute phase of an inflammation that serves as an indicator of intensity of inflammatory process and existence of fabric damages.
It is opened in 1930 by Tillett and Fransis (W. S. Tillett, Th. Francis) at patients with lobar pneumonia as the factor of blood serum appearing in 18 — 24 hours after the beginning of a disease, having property to react (to pretsipiti-rovat) with S-polysaccharide of a pneumococcus and polysaccharides of other bacteria and fungi.
Cf. has unique pentagonal structure from 5 connected subunits identical not covalently. Each of subunits has the molecular weight (weight) apprx.
21 000 and contains 187 amino acids in a polypeptide chain with one disulfide bridge. Electrophoretic mobility matches a zone of movement and - and at-globuli-is new.
Cf. has the properties identical with antibodies of IgG. With - reak-tivny protein and IgG aggregated by heating activate system of a complement (a classical and alternative way of activation), cause aggregation of thrombocytes and lead to release of ATP from them. Interaction With - reactive go a squirrel with S-polysaccharide of a pneumococcus differs from reaction of antibodies with S-polysaccharide in the fact that this process happens only in the presence of ions of Sa +2, to-rye are necessary for reaction of S-reactive protein with phosphocholine determinants on S-polysaccharide.
Cf. causes a complement-mediated hemolysis of the erythrocytes conjugated by S-polysaccharide; reacts with mononuclear cells of in vitro and participates in mechanisms of phagocytosis (see). It is supposed that Cf. can be opsonin (see).
Complexes Cf. with polysaccharide and units Cf. cause activation of system of a complement on a classical way and can lead to development of reaction like Artus-sa (see Artyus a phenomenon). The phenomenon, similar to Artyus's phenomenon, would be reproduced in an experiment at intradermal introduction of units human Cf.
Deposits Cf. are found in sites of the injured skin at acute and chronic vasculites of skin, especially at a necrotizing vasculitis (see). Consider that Cf. supports a chronic inflammation at vasculites. At development of vasculites of skin with existence in infiltrates of the neutrophils phagocytizing Cf., such lizosomalny enzymes as p-glyukoronidaza, myeloperoxidase are released. Cytoplasmatic enzymes, napr, a lactic dehydrogenase, are not released.
By 266 TsRIKVENITsA
Most exact methods of identification Cf. are immunological (see the Immunodiagnosis), to-rye are based on use of antibodies to Cf. For this purpose it is possible to use reaction of an interfacia and a precipitation test (see Precipitation) in capillaries. For determination of quantity Cf. in blood serum the method of radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with use of monospecific serum against would be applied Cf.; a method of an electrophoresis (see) in agar gel, antibody-containing to Cf., and also the radio isotope equipment and the equipment of a laser nefelometriya (see).
Contents Cf. in blood serum at healthy faces fluctuates, according to Parish (W. E. Parish, 1976), from 200 ng! the ml to 1800 ng/ml, is more often — 790 IS! ml. Its contents is slightly higher at women, than at men. During pregnancy concentration Cf. increases, however through a placental barrier it does not get.
Concentration Cf. increases at acute bacterial and viral infections and reaches peak for
1 — 3 day of a disease. At an acute myocardial infarction (see) concentration Cf. raises in the first two days and reaches a maximum for the 3rd day. At the same time quantity Cf. increases in 2 hours after emergence of a pain syndrome. Strengthening Cf. is a sensitive indicator of development of a necrosis of a myocardium. At autoimmune diseases, inf. diseases and diseases of kidneys, concentration Cf. increases, according to Claus (D. R. Claus, 1976), up to 38 000 ng/ml, and at vasculites of skin fluctuates, according to Parish
(1976), from 2500 ng/ml to 160 000 ng/ml.
Contents Cf. it is raised at most of patients with acute primary rheumatism (see) in an active phase of a disease. At a pseudorheumatism (see) its quantity is increased approximately at 85% of patients and correlates with activity of a disease. Increase in level Cf. at a pseudorheumatism and a juvenile pseudorheumatism is predictively the adverse sign indicating an exacerbation of a disease.
Bibliography: V. I. Immuno's nets
logical methods of studying of rheumatism and other collagenic diseases, page 8, M., 1962; Fie del B. A.,
Simp son R. M of a. Gewurz of N. of Activation of platelets by modified C-reactive protein, Immunology, v. 45, p. 439, 1982; Oliveira E. B.,
Gotsch-lich E. C. a. Teh-y ung Liu. Primary structure of human C-reactive protein, J. biol. Chem., v. 254, p. 489, 1979; Short M. T.
O s m a n d A. P. Luminescence energy transfer studies of C-reactive protein, Binding of terbium (III) ions in C-reactive protein, Immunol. Communication, v. 12, p. 291, 1983; T i 1-lettW. S. a. Francis T. Serological reactions in pneumonia with a nonprotein somatic fraction on pneumococcus, J. exp. Med., v. 52, p. 561, 1930.
A. I. Speransky.