RWA, Lerua Hendrik (De Roy Hendrik, 1598 — 1679) — the Dutch doctor-physiologist, the philosopher materialist, one of founders and heads of materialistic school of a kartezianstvo in Utrecht.
Was born in Utrecht. Having completed education, went in for medicine, was the rector of Latin school in Nardena. Since 1638 professor of department of theoretical medicine and botany in Utrecht un-those.
De Rua's outlook is closely connected with mechanistic natural sciences of Modern times. Proceeding from pilot fundamentals of physics, physiology and medicine, De Rua drew mechanistic and materialistic conclusions, progressive for 17 century, spoke out in defense of U. Garvey's doctrine about blood circulation and Copernicus (Galilei's) doctrines about rotation of Earth.
Developing R. Descartes's doctrine about the nature, De Rua rejected his concept about knowledge. Having refused dualism of Descartes and his followers in interpretation of a problem of a ratio of soul and a body, De Rua tried to eliminate a basic gap between soul and a body, between the person and animals. It put forward the thesis that soul consists of thinking, the vegetable force (ability of feeling) and motive force of animal spirits. The thinking as «a mode of a body» is peculiar only to the person, and two last forces — to the person and animals. Tried to connect by that De Rua physical and mental in the person, to treat them as unity various or the unity containing distinction. He rejected Descartes's doctrine about «the inborn ideas» and considered that our mind comprehends various ideas depending on the movements influencing our sense bodys that we learn all concepts from others or we bring them out of observation of things. Thus, he tried to connect mechanistic physiology with the doctrine about a pilot, sensual origin of all ideas.
In 1631. De Rua appeared before the church court in Nardena on a charge of heresy because materialistic tendencies of his views, in particular on essence of soul and its relation with a body, contradicted church canons. In 1641 De Rua's views were recognized dangerous to religion, and it was authorized to it to act and write only concerning medicine. For aspiration to a materialistic explanation of the nature and the person De Rua underwent prosecution not only theologians; his former friends — Cartesians, including and R. Descartes also renounced it. Cartesians declared De Rua the turncoat, and philosophers of idealistic sense buried in oblivion its contribution to development of philosophical thought. Despite it De Rua remained is faithful to the beliefs and by right it is considered the herald of fr. materialism of 18 century.
Bibliography: Bykhovsky B. The principles of philosophy of Guendric De-Roi, Under a banner of Marxism, No. 5-6, page 236, 1932; History of philosophy, under the editorship of G. F. Alexandrov, etc., t. 2, page 148, M., 1941.
V. A. Ponomarchuk.