RWANDA, the Rwandan Republic — the state in the Central Africa. The area is 26,3 thousand sq.km. Population of 5050 thousand people (1980). The capital — Kigali (117 thousand zhit., 1978). Administrative division — 10 prefectures. Ofits. languages of Kinyarwanda and French.
The river — the republic. Till 1962 the ward the territory of the UN Rwanda-Urundi. Independence is declared in 1962. In 1978 the new constitution is adopted. The head of state and the governments — the president; executive power is carried out by the government.
The climate of dry subtropics softened with the considerable height of the area above sea level.
River — economically backward agrarian country. In economy the foreign capital dominates. In 1978 the St. 96% of the population were engaged in agriculture. Page - x. production gave apprx. 60% of cost of export. Coffee, tea, pyrethrum were exported. Agriculture is unproductive and has semi-natural character. Hl are produced. obr. cassava, batata, ambercane, corn, bananas. The cattle breeding is developed. The industry is presented by the small enterprises for processing of page - x. raw materials, to production of cement, paints, perfumery, etc. The mixed Belgian-Rwandan company extracts cassiterite, tungsten, Colombo tantalite. All products of the mining enterprises are taken out abroad.
The population of the country is presented by nationality of a banyaruand (ethnic groups: to a bakhut — St. 86%, oh - the Tutsi — 13%, pygmies-batva apprx. 1%). The natural movement of the population in 1980, on incomplete ofitsa. to data (on 1000 people): birth rate 19,5, mortality 5,2, natural increase 14,3; child mortality made 127 on 1000 live-born. 51% of the population aged up to 15 years and 2% are more senior than 65 years.
The structure of incidence of the population takes the leading place inf. and parasitic diseases. In 1979 14 thousand cases of malaria are registered, among other parasitic diseases the trypanosomiasis, a dochmiasis, a schistosomatosis are registered. Are eurysynusic went. - kish. inf. diseases: in 1979 5 cases of cholera, 367 cases of a typhoid, 3750 cases of dysentery are registered, apprx. 4 thousand cases of other diseases went. - kish. path. In 1979 738 cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis are considered; the leprosy, trachoma, tetanus, poliomyelitis, a typhinia, measles are registered, and children at the age of 2 — 5 years have diseases of a hyponutrient.
The health service in the country is headed by Min-in of health care. There is a national antiepidemiological service, edges holds events for fight with inf. diseases and vaccination of the population.
In 1977 in the country functioned 201 to lay down. establishment on 7162 beds (14,0 on 10 000 population), from them 127 public institutions on 4223 beds. In number to lay down. institutions: 23-tsy the general type on 4028 beds, 176 medical centers (2796 beds), 1-tsa for treatment of TB patients on 184 beds and 1 psychiatric-tsa on 154 beds. In the same uchrezhdenpyakh ambulatory medical aid to the population is carried out. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of R. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In 1976 in the country 109 doctors (0,3 for 10 000 population), 206 medical assistants, 138 midwifes, 211 nurses - midwifes, 178 assistants to the nurse-midwife, 78 nurses, 190 assistants to the nurse, 10 druggists and other medical staff worked. General practitioners are trained on medical f-those National un-that in Butare, and assistants to doctors — at medical schools of Kigali and Butare. Postdegree training of doctors is carried out abroad. Schools on training of paramedical staff function.
In Rwanda the research center is organized, to-ry is engaged in studying of questions of traditional medicine, especially treatments in the medicinal plants growing in the country.
Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 68, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World health statistics annual, 1978, v. 3, p. 12, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Infectious diseases, p. 11, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 31, Geneva, 1980.
A. A. Rozov.