RUTHERFORD Earnest (Rutherford Ernest, 1871 — 1937) — the English physicist, one of founders of the doctrine about the radioactivity and an atomic structure; Nobel Prize laureate (1908), member of the London world, royal about-va (1903) and many academies, including honorary member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
After the termination in 1894. New Zealand un-that E. Rutherford worked in Kavendishsky laboratory at Cambridge un-those under the leadership of J. J. Thomson.
In 1897 headed department of physics in Montreal, since 1907 worked in Manchester. Since 1919 and until the end of life was professor Cambridge un-that and the director of Kavendishsky laboratory.
All main works E. Rutherford are devoted to questions of a structure of an atomic nucleus. In the first works he established that corpuscular radiation consists of two parts, gave them the name alpha and beta beams, showed that beta beams represent a cathode rays, and alpha rays are atoms of helium. In 1900 discovered the decomposition product of radium called an emanation. In 1903 together with F. Soddy E. Rutherford put forward the theory explaining the radioactivity as spontaneous decomposition of atoms of substance, at Krom there is a transformation of atoms of one elements into others. It the first carried out artificial transformation of elements. For these works in 1908 it was conferred the Nobel Prize.
Studying dispersion of particles during the passing them through substance, came to a conclusion that in the center of atoms there is a massive positively charged kernel. In 1911 he offered the planetary model of atom representing similarity of Solar system: in the center — a positively charged kernel, around it on orbits negatively charged electrons move. On the basis of this model in 1913 Bor (N. Bohr) created the theory of atom and ranges.
In 1919 E. Rutherford for the first time proved a possibility of artificial decomposition of elements. It bombarded fast particles nitrogen atoms therefore they turned into oxygen atoms, at the same time the bystry kernels of hydrogen called according to its offer protons took off. In 1921 by it it is suggested about a possibility of existence of a neutral particle — a neutron. Further works of E. Rutherford were devoted to studying of induced radioactivity of various elements.
AA. Rutherford was the talented organizer, created big school of physicists. The results of basic researches in the field of nuclear physics received by E. Rutherford and his pupils were important in development of a number of the applied questions directly related to such sections of medicine as medical radiology, a radiology, etc.
Works: The collected papers of Lord Rutherford of Nelson, v. 1—3, L., 1962 — 1965; Chosen scientific works, Radioactivity, M., 1971; Chosen scientific works, Atomic structure and artificial transformation of elements, M., 1972
Bibliography: Tannin D. Rutherford, M., 1967; Rutherford is the scientist and the teacher, To the 100 anniversary since birth, under the editorship of P. L. Kashchshchy, M., 1973; Old rural - N and to and t and N and O. A. Ernest Rutherford, M., 1967; Eve A. S. Rutherford, Being the life and letters of the rt. hon. lord Rutherford, Cambridge, 1939.
P. L. Kapitsa.