From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC, RSFSR - federal republic; it is formed on October 25 (on November 7), 1917, since 1922 is a part of the USSR. It is located in the European and Asian part of the country. The area is 17 075,4 thousand km 2 . The population of 140 017 thousand people (for 1/1 1982) that makes more than 0,5 all population of the USSR. Is a part of the population the St. 100 people and nationalities, more than 80% are made by the Russians settled across all territory of the republic. Average population density 8,2 people on 1 (below, than in other federal republics, except Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan); in various districts depending on features of settling and economic development of the territory considerable fluctuations of this indicator are noted. The capital — Moscow (8 302 thousand people, 1982). 16 autonomous republics, 5 autonomous regions, 10 autonomous areas, 6 edges, 49 areas, 1813 rural districts are a part of RSFSR; there are 1014 cities, including 564 republican, regional, regional and district subordination. The largest cities (with number of inhabitants more than 1 million for 1/1 1982): Leningrad, Gorky, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk, Kuibyshev, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Perm, Kazan, Ufa. 71% are the share of a share of urban population, according to 1981 (in 1939 — 33%).


The nature of the republic is very various that is defined by its geographical arrangement and the huge territory: extent in the meridional direction 2,5 — 4,0 thousand km, and in the width — 9,0 thousand km. Apprx. 70% of the area of RSFSR it is busy with extensive plains. In the West the East European Plain is located, in limits a cut low heights are combined with lowlands, to the East from the Ural Mountains — the West Siberian Plain, and between the Yenisei Rivers and Lena — the Average-Siberian tableland. The mountainous terrain with strongly cross-country terrain is formed in the south by northern slopes of the Caucasus, in the northwest — Khibiny Mountains, in the southeast — Mount Altai; in the south to Average Siberian tableland ridges of the Western and East Sayan Mountains, adjoin the East from Lena — ridges and plateaus of Northeast Asia. The most part of the territory of RSFSR is located in the temperate climatic zone, the islands of the Arctic Ocean and extreme northern continental districts belong to the Arctic and subarctic belts, and the small site of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus — to a subtropical belt. On the most part of the territory of the republic climate continental, in the extreme northwest — preferential sea, in the Far East — monsoonal, in Siberia — sharply continental. In a subsoil of the republic the main resources of mineral fuel in the USSR (St. 70% of explored reserves of coal, St. 90% — peat), large reserves of iron ores, 100% of deposits of apatites, St. 60% of all-union resources of potassium salts, etc. are concentrated.

For years of the Soviet power of RSFSR from agrarian turned into the powerful industrial republic with the developed agriculture, the cut falls to the share 2/3 industrial and apprx. 1/2 pages - x. products of the country. The territory of the republic is divided into 11 economic districts.

In structure of the national economy the industry, especially heavy industry prevails. The industry differs in deep structural differentiation. In the republic all types of products which are turned out in the USSR — from raw materials and fuel to the most difficult cars and products of thin chemical technology are made. In RSFSR the world's largest hydroelectric power stations — on Volga, Kama, Ob, Yenisei, Angara, Irtysh are constructed; commercial production of oil and gas is conducted. From oil-bearing districts the network main petro and gas pipelines not only to various districts of our country, but also abroad is laid. The largest automobile plants in Togliatti and Brezhnev are constructed, is under construction Baikal-Amur. - the highway, accustom natural wealth of Siberia and the Far East where the considerable number of territorial and industrial complexes is under construction.

The republic has extensive land area, including about 60% of cultivated area of the country giving over a half of gross collecting grain crops, extensive haying and pasturable grounds (1974). In RSFSR there is about a half of number of cattle, pigs, sheep, birds and all livestock of deer of the country (1975). Agriculture of RSFSR represents the powerful, equipped with modern appliances socialist production. Were of great importance for its development the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further development of agriculture of the Nonchernozem zone RSFSR» (1974), the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further development of agriculture Central Chernozem go the region of RSFSR» (1981), the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About complex development of agriculture in the Areas of Siberia, the Far East and in the Kurgan region» (1982).

The CPSU accepted by a May (1982) Plenum of the Central Committee according to decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU «The food programme of the USSR for the period till 1990 and a measure for its implementation» is urged to provide steady and uninterrupted supply of the population with all types of food, further progress of all national economy and growth of welfare of the population of the republic (see. Food programme ). The planned growth of page - x. products will lay the foundation of supply of the population with the most valuable food stuffs, will provide significant growth in their consumption that will allow to improve significantly structure of food, will make it fuller and balanced that is the integral element of a healthy lifestyle. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of housing, household and welfare living conditions of country people» (1982) provided implementation of the complex actions directed to strengthening of rural settlements, their transformation into well-planned settlements, considerable development of means of communication and means of communication. It will promote considerable improvement a dignity. conditions of settlements, to increase dignity. cultures of the population, will exert positive impact on the organization of medical aid to villagers.

Constantly welfare and living standards of the population of the republic increases, provision of pensions improves, the average level of the salary and grants the pupil increases. Norms of expenses on food and medicines increase in to lay down. institutions. The health care, education, system of trade develop, the network of cultural institutions, the spectacular enterprises, etc. grows.

Much attention is paid to development of science. In 1969 the resolution «About Development of Scientific Institutions in the Certain Economic Region of RSFSR» is accepted the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR. The Far East and Ural scientific centers of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the North Caucasian scientific center of the higher school were created. In the territory of RSFSR industry all-Union aka-dekhmiya work: VASHNIL and its departments (Siberian, founded in 1969, and the Nonchernozem zone, founded in 1975), the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and its Siberian branch organized in 1971 and transformed to department in 1979. The number of scientists increased in RSFSR in 1980 in comparison with 1940 by 15 times and makes 937,7 thousand people.

RSFSR is awarded by four awards: in 1954 in commemoration of the 300 anniversary of reunion of Ukraine with Russia and for outstanding progress of the people of RSFSR in the state, economic and cultural construction — the Order of Lenin; in 1958 for success achieved by workers of the republic in increase in production of grain, sugar beet and other products of agriculture — it is awarded by the second Order of Lenin; in 1967 in connection with the 50 anniversary of the Soviet power — an award of the October revolution, and in 1972 in commemoration of the 50 anniversary of the USSR — the Order of Friendship of the people.


the organization of health care was In pre-revolutionary Russia on very low level. The population of many districts of the country, especially suburban, was almost deprived of medical aid. Was extremely unsuccessful a dignity. a state that caused a high level of incidence and mortality. Low dignity. culture of the population along with severe conditions of life created the soil for a wide spread occurance inf. diseases. The outbreaks of cholera, natural smallpox, sypny and returnable typhus, malaria were regularly noted. Such diseases as tuberculosis, itch, trachoma were widespread, etc. Apprx. 27% of children died within the first year of life.

The Bolshevik party and the Soviet government from the first days of creation of the Soviet state attached paramount significance a dignity. to wellbeing of the republic and health of workers. Activity of separate departments in the field of medicine was coordinated by Council of medical boards. All medical - a dignity. began to direct business on places medical - a dignity. departments of local councils, private-tsy and drugstores were nationalized. In 1918 the decree of Council of People's Commissars signed with V. I. Lenin, founded the National commissariat of health care of RSFSR, to the jurisdiction to-rogo were transferred all medical - a dignity. institutions and the management of everything to lay down. and dignity. matter in the Soviet republic. With creation of the National commissariat of health care of RSFSR the unity of the Soviet health care is organizationally made out.

In the first years the Soviet government issued a number of the major decrees on labor protection and health of workers: about social insurance, about protection of motherhood and an infancy (1917), about nationalization of drugstores and medical property, about obligatory smallpox vaccination (1919), about fight against a sapropyra (1919), etc. Much attention to development of health care of the republic was paid by V. I. Lenin (see Lenin and health care).

Bodies and institutions of the Soviet health care from the most emergence were directly involved in the solution of the main objectives in the field of health care which rose before the young Soviet republic during civil war and foreign intervention (1918 — 1920) during transition to peaceful work on recovery of the national economy (1921 — 1925), in the years of fight for industrialization of the country and collectivization of agriculture (1926 — 1934). Ways of reorganization of work of a health system were defined by the historical resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee «About medical care of workers and peasants» (1929). Completion of construction of socialism in the USSR (1935 — 1940) was followed by further development and strengthening of health care. Growth of health care of RSFSR in autonomous republics and national districts is especially indicative.

The Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945) put forward a number of new tasks before health care of RSFSR: the organization of medical aid by the wounded and patient (expansion of evakogospitaly), ensuring needs of the Soviet Army, preservation of epidemic wellbeing of the republic, medical providing the evacuated population. In the years of war at the enterprises of the defense industry MSCh which played a big role in health protection of workers the vast majority began to be created to-rykh women and teenagers made.

In the period of post-war and subsequent five-years periods the events directed to further improvement of the organization of medical aid to the population were held. Were the basis for work of health care of the republic the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of medical care and public health care of the USSR» (1960) and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country» (1968).

Special role in public health care, providing a dignity. wellbeing of the republic, elimination of the factors and conditions which are harmfully influencing health of the population played the «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care» which came into force with 7/1/1970.

In 1977 there was a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care», representing the comprehensive program of activity of all bodies and healthcare institutions on the near-term outlook. In it value of prevention of diseases, injury prevention, protection of motherhood and the childhood, improvement of work is emphasized to lay down. - the prof. of institutions. Special attention is paid on strengthening out-patient polrshli-nicheskoy networks. Further development of health care went through expansion and approach to the population of the specialized help, strengthening of emergency medical service, construction of large multi-profile BCs.

The decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU which defined ways of development of health care for 1980 — 1985 are imbued with special care of the CPSU of health protection of the Soviet people and provide further development of network of healthcare institutions and strengthening of its material and technical resources. The new tasks in the field of health protection of the Soviet people corresponding to the grandiose social and economic transformations planned by decisions of the XXVI congress November (1981) and May (1982) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU, are defined in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About additional measures for improvement of public health care» (1982). In implementation of this resolution active part will be taken by party and Soviet bodies, the ministries and departments of RSFSR, labor unions, Komsomol, wide circles of the Soviet public.

The radical reorganization of health care undertaken after Great October socialist revolution, daily care of the state of increase in culture and material well-being of the people allowed to strengthen considerably the state of health of the population, to achieve almost complete elimination of a row inf. diseases, including sharply to reduce incidence of tuberculosis, and also to considerably improve physical development of children and teenagers in all social groups of the population and at various nationalities. Child mortality (see) decreased by 1950 in comparison with 1913 more than vz time, and by 1980 — more than by 12 times. Also the general mortality (tab. 1) decreased. Average life expectancy by 80th in comparison with the pre-revolutionary period increased almost by 2,5 times.

The treatment-and-prophylactic help

the Treatment-and-prophylactic help to the population leans on wide network of out-patient and polyclinic, medical and sanatorium institutions.

The out-patient and polyclinic help

In pre-revolutionary Russia an important place in rendering extra pain-nichnoy of the help to the population, especially city, occupied activity of private medical practitioners. For years of the Soviet power in the republic the wide network ambu-

latorno-polyclinic institutions of system of the state health care, providing the population with public, free medical aid is created. Every year the material and technical resources of policlinics improve. In 1980 out-patient and polyclinic help was given by doctors 18 662 to lay down. institutions, and also in 12 586 clinics for women, children's policlinics and out-patient clinics. Only for years of the tenth five-years period policlinics on 378 thousand visits per shift were opened up. The number of visits of doctors by the population counting on 1 city dweller increased with 10,5 in 1970 to 12,2 in 1980 and by 1 villager — according to 3,3 to 5,0. In the light of decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU, May (1982) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About additional measures for improvement of public health care» especially much attention is paid to improvement of the ambulatornopoliklinichesky help. In pursuance of the specified resolution work on increase in level of medical aid, reduction by 1985 of the number of the serviced adult population on one local doctor - terapev - that till 1700 persons is carried out. The annual average gain of positions of local vra-whose-therapists for 1983 — 1984 for RSFSR will make 5745. For completion of territorial therapeutic sites for 1983 — 1984 the St. 4 thousand doctors — young specialists will annually go.

Polyclinic department of a medical and sanitary part of Nizhnevartovsk — Petrogas production association.

Development of network of policlinics is carried out as due to creation of polyclinic departments as a part of multi-profile BCs, and by construction (according to standard projects) independent polyclinic institutions. More than 50% of city policlinics are placed in standard rooms and equipped with a modern obrudovaniye. From 18,7 thousand polyclinic institutions of 9678% have modern clinical diagnostic laboratories, 93% — physiotherapeutic offices and departments, more than 60% — offices of an electrocardiography, 30% — offices of functional diagnosis, more than 10% — departments of recovery treatment and rehabilitation. Much attention in the organization of work of policlinics is paid to rendering specialized types of medical aid. Most city policlinics render medical aid on 20 — 30 specialties, and policlinics of the central regional and regional BCs — on 10 — 15 specialties. The increasing development is gained by centralization of specialized types of medical aid that promotes more rational and effective use of shots and the equipment, expansion of a possibility of consultation of patients, professional development of specialists doctors. In Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, Kemerovo, Chelyabinsk, Arkhangelsk, Perm, Voronezh, Stavropol and other cities the regional, interdistrict and city consulting and diagnostic centers are organized, in to-rykh highly qualified specialists conduct reception on cardiology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, pulmonology, allergology, a proctology, urology, etc. The large role in rendering specialized medical aid in the republic is played by also wide network of clinics (antitubercular, oncological, dermatovenerologic, medical physical sack - turnykh and dr-servicing the population generally by the territorial principle that allows to be engaged systematically in scheduled maintenance, to provide early detection of patients and dispensary observation behind them (see. Clinic , Medical examination ).

The major link in activity of policlinics is scheduled maintenance, and in particular the organization of medical examination of the population, the big role in carrying out a cut belongs to local and shop therapists and at the same time doctors of other specialties — surgeons, neuropathologists, cardiologists, rheumatologists, endocrinologists, ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, etc. As a result of the carried-out work the coverage of patients with medical examination counting on 1000 people of adult population of the republic increased with 112,0 in 1965 to 187,5 in 1980. For increase in overall performance of healthcare institutions for public health care preventive activity of out-patient and polyclinic institutions amplifies. For this M3 of the USSR it is offered to organize as a part of large policlinics of department of prevention, to increase quality of mass routine maintenances and medical examination of the population (first of all women and children, teenagers), to develop network and to improve work of medicogenetic consultations.

The best practices of work widely are implemented into activity of policlinics. In most city policlinics, considering interests of the working population, the working schedule providing a possibility of the address of workers to the doctor and a call of the doctor on the house about their working day — in early morning and evening is entered. Also carrying out medical examination in the evening and Saturday days is expanded. The teamwork gained distribution in work of policlinics. In many policlinics inspection of patients before the direction on hospitalization is carried out in the order provided by specially developed lists including researches to-rye are necessary at these or those diseases that not only promotes upgrading of diagnosis, but also reduces the term of stay of the patient in a hospital. Departments of recovery treatment are created; their experience testifies to prospects of this direction in activity of polyclinic institutions. Total number of departments (offices) of recovery treatment in city policlinics by 1987 will increase on 788, and departments (offices) of prevention by 1985 — on 675. Total number of consulting and diagnostic policlinics by 1987 will increase to 180.

See also Treatment-and-prophylactic help , Policlinic , Prevention , Prevention primary .

Regional hospital No. 1, Sverdlovsk.
the Chamber equipped with the videophone in a republican hospital of Mr. Ordzhonikidze.

Stationary help. For years of the Soviet power providing the population of the republic with stationary medical aid considerably improved. If in 1913 in the territory of Russia 133,4 thousand beds in 3,2 thousand medical institutions were developed (14,8 beds on 10 thousand inhabitants), then for 1/1 1981 this indicator increased by 13,5 times and made 1801,9 thousand (129,6 beds on 10 thousand inhabitants; tab. 2). In 1982 the indicator of security with beds in RSFSR reached already 131,1 beds on 10 thousand inhabitants. Only for years of the ninth five-years period it was put into operation medical institutions on 194 400 beds, and for years of the tenth five-years period — on 171 448 beds. The main direction in development of network stationary to lay down. institutions construction of the new large multi-profile BCs and expansion operating is. For years of the tenth five-years period 20 large multi-field hospitals on 600 — 1000 and more beds are constructed. In a stage of construction there are 20 more multi-profile BCs on 1000 and more beds. Average power republican (in the ASSR), regional and regional BCs increased from 744 beds in 1975 to 810 in 1980, city — according to 205 to 255.

The consistent focus is provided on development of network of stationary institutions in the districts of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East where security of the population with hospital beds is much higher, than on other regions of RSFSR (tab. 3).

Bodies of health care of the republic carried out considerable work on expansion of hospital network, hardware of medical institutions, improvement of quality and culture of service of patients. Strengthening of material resources of healthcare institutions and growth of qualification of medical shots promoted further specialization of bed fund (tab. 4), increase in volume and upgrading of specialized stationary medical aid with implementation in practice of new means and diagnostic methods and treatment.

See also Hospital , Municipal hospital , Regional hospital .

Emergency medical service. Organizational basis of emergency medical service to the population of the republic is the network of stations and departments of emergency medical service, edges constantly extends. If in 1940 it consisted from 661 stantsit: and departments, by 1960 their number increased to 1038, and by 1980 — till 2213. Quantity dignity. cars at stations in the same years made respectively 1132, 3995 and 8000. The number of established medical posts reached in 1980 20,2 thousand, and average medics — 46,88 thousand. In 1980 the stations and departments of emergency medical service executed 43,8 million calls. For 1980 — 1985 construction of 22 stations of ambulance, 44 substations and 25 garages is planned for 4660 parking places.

It is paid to creation of specialized crews of emergency medical service for rendering the emergency specialized help at various medical emergencies much attention. By 1980 it was created more than 830 exit specialized (cardiological, traumatologic, pediatric, neurologic, resuscitation, etc.) crews. The stations and departments of emergency medical service are organized at many central regional-tsakh that allows to bring closer it to country people significantly.

The large role in improvement of service of ambulance is played belonging to it-tsy, integrated with stations (see Emergency medical service hospital). In 1980 in RSFSR would be 44 such (in Vladivostok, Murmansk, Penza, Rostov-on-Don, Saratov and other cities). Their experience testifies to an opportunity to significantly improve quality of rendering emergency medical service on the basis of interaction of stations and BC. The organization of 30 BCs of emergency medical service on 16 thousand beds on the basis of existing is provided in plan targets for 1980 — 1985 to lay down. institutions, construction of 5 new BCs of this type on 3300 beds and 3 cases on 800 beds of the same appointment at acting-tsakh.

The significant role in rendering emergency medical service to the population of the remote and hardly accessible districts belongs also to departments plano - in - advisory and emergency medical aid of the regional, regional, republican BCs joint with stations a dignity. aircraft. According to decisions May (1982) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU in the eleventh five-years period the organization in all rural districts of service of emergency medical service will be complete. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About additional measures for improvement of public health care» (1982) relevant ministries and departments of the USSR established tasks on providing health care specialized a dignity. transport, the dispatching equipment, the medical equipment and means for equipment of stations (departments) of fast and acute medical aid.

See also Emergency medical service .

Medical care by the worker of the industrial enterprises. Bodies and healthcare institutions of RSFSR pay special attention to health protection and improvement of medical aid by the worker of the industry, construction and transport. This contingent of the population has the right preferential medical - a dignity. providing that it is expressed in creation and development of network of special medical facilities at the industrial enterprises — MSCh, medical and medical assistant's health centers, and also in an attachment territorial to lay down. - the prof. of institutions to the industrial enterprises. Many territorial policlinics carry out preferential medical service of the working industrial enterprises for what in their structure by 1980 6034 shop medical sites were created (see). Further improvement of medical service of the working industrial enterprises is promoted by growth of number of sanatoria dispensaries, night sanatoria and dietetic dining halls, factory sanatoria, rest houses, etc. So, in 1980 in RSFSR 1756 sanatoria dispensaries on 139,1 thousand beds functioned, in to-rykh had a rest and 1938 thousand people were treated.

Department of hyperbaric oxygenation of a medical and sanitary part of the Volga automobile works, Togliatti.

The big help to lay down. - the prof. to the institutions servicing workers of the industrial enterprises in improvement a dignity. - a gigabyte. working conditions and prevention of occupational diseases the employees of the sanitary and epidemiologic station (see) studying working conditions working, giving a gigabyte render. assessment of new technological processes, fiziologo-hygienic assessment of new professions defining the efficiency of individual protection equipment and the accident prevention developing complex measures of prevention of diseases etc. (see. Production sanitation). In 9 research in-ta of occupational health and occupational diseases scientific development of questions of influence of working conditions on health is carried out. Bodies of health care of the republic actively cooperate with all ministries and departments, and also the central committees and the scientific organizations of labor unions for improvement of conditions and labor protection (see), sanitary consumer services of workers, their medical support and the prevention of incidence. Results of this joint activity and the best practices are discussed and implemented into production. Only for years of the tenth five-years period the relevant data relating to 27 industries and the largest buildings in the territory of the republic were considered. Practice Chelyabinsk tractor, Chelyabinsk metallurgical, Izhevsk machine-building, Ufa engine-building and some other the plants on creation of the medical and engineering crews including doctors of the main specialties, representatives of engineering services, public organizations received positive assessment, in particular. Such crews play an efficient role in improvement of working conditions and decrease in incidence of workers. Much attention is paid to development of physical culture and sport, the workers having huge value in strengthening of health, to providing the enterprises with stadiums, sports grounds and halls, swimming pools etc.

See also Health center , Medical and sanitary part , Sanatorium dispensary .

Medical care to country people. The CPSU and the Soviet government pay much attention to development of agriculture, welfare and household construction in the village, to rural health care. Under the direction of local party and Soviet bodies, with assistance of the trade-union, Komsomol organizations and the general public bodies of health care carried out a number of important measures for health protection and improvement of medical providing country people. In many areas considerable work on development of network and strengthening of material and technical resources of regional and local BCs, out-patient clinics, stations of fast and acute medical aid, completion as their medical shots, equipment as the medical equipment, providing with high-passable types a dignity is carried out. transport.

For years of the Soviet power in the republic the harmonious system of medical aid to country people was created, the cut is idiosyncrasy staging in its rendering. Fundamental unit, the most approximate to the population and presented almost in each settlement, is the medical and obstetrical center (see); the number pkhk made 1981 48,4 thousand. Medical out-patient and first stationary help to country people would be given by district police officers, to-rykh in 1980 there were 4,6 thousand. In addition, for rendering an ambulatory care the network of independent rural medical out-patient clinics develops more and more widely, the number to-rykh for years of the tenth five-years period increased from 920 to 1235. During the period from 1983 to 1985 850 out-patient clinics will be constructed. Their construction is provided by decisions May (1982) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU due to the state capital investments allocated for development of agriculture. For the purpose of approach medical out-patient poliklini-cheskoy, including specialized, the help to inhabitants of the remote settlements, and also for service of toilers of agriculture during field works mobile out-patient clinics (see), leaders, in addition to medical, big preventive and a dignity will be organized. - a gleam, work. Mobile out-patient clinics in districts of Far North, districts of distant-pasture livestock production and the remote areas with small population density have special value. In addition, at regional, regional, republican dental policlinics will be organized mobile stomatol. offices, and at antitubercular clinics — mobile fluorographic offices and stations. Specialized medical aid is provided to country people regional and central regional-tsami. Their enlargement, equipment by the modern medical equipment, equipment and dignity. motor transport allowed to increase considerably quality and culture of medical service of country people, to expand specialization of medical aid, to reduce terms of treatment of patients, to reduce quantity of the complications caused by transportation on far distances. In 1980 in the territory of RSFSR 619 central regional and 248 regional BCs with the regional center in the village functioned. Only for years of the tenth five-years period the central regional and separate cases to them on 32,5 thousand beds would be constructed. For the same period on the basis of large central regional BCs 624 interdistrict specialized departments were organized. Big participation in strengthening of material resources rural to lay down. - prof. of institutions accept the collective farms and state farms making the investments in construction. Average power of the central regional BCs with the center in the city increased in the tenth five-years period from 223,4 to 252,6 beds, and in rural areas — respectively from 127 to 144,5 beds. Significantly the level of hospitalization of country people, generally in the central regional hospitals increased that testifies to their increasing role in providing villagers with stationary medical aid.

Gatchina central regional hospital of the Leningrad region.

Rendering highly skilled medical aid practically on all specialties is carried out regional, regional, republican-tsami, advisory policlinics are a part to-rykh; regional (regional, republican) specialized clinics; in some cases to lay down. - the prof. institutions of the cities. For the purpose of providing the population with highly specialized types of medical aid the specialized centers are created; in 1980 in RSFSR 29 republican and 110 interregional specialized centers functioned.

In rendering medical aid to country people, especially emergency, in the conditions of RSFSR occupying the huge territory the sanitary aircraft has great value (see). Its development allows not only to transport patients from the remote districts in large specialized medical institutions or to carry out delivery of specialists in remote to lay down. institutions and directly to the patient but also to organize advisory work in a planned order. Departments of the emergency and planned and advisory help of regional, regional, republican BCs joint with stations dignity. aircraft, widely practice planned scheduled maintenance, sending to the remote districts for medical inspection of the population the integrated medical teams consisting of specialists doctors to lay down. institutions of area and city, and also professors and teachers of clinics of medical and research in-t; it promotes also professional development of doctors rural to lay down. - the prof. of institutions.

See also Rural medical site , Central regional hospital .

Protection of motherhood and childhood. Before Great October socialist revolution in Russia obstetric aid (see) was one of the most backward sections of health care. The vast majority of women gave birth almost unaided, resorting only to services of grandmas midwives (see Midwives). In 1913 in the territory of modern RSFSR there were only 7,5 thousand medical and obstetric beds for pregnant women and women in labor, 1223 doctors of the akushe-ra-gynecologist and 9 thousand midwives. The Russia's first nursery-tsa on 60 beds, contained on charitable means, was open in 1834 in St. Petersburg. In 1913 in Russia there were only 9 women's and children's consultations, 30 milk points, 30 children's BCs on 3 thousand beds, 19 day nursery on 550 places, were available only 814 children's doctors.

In 1980 the number of medical and obstetric beds for pregnant women and women in labor reached in RSFSR 11,7 thousand, number of clinics for women, children's policlinics and out-patient clinics — 12,6 thousand. Only for years of the tenth five-years period 80 maternity homes (departments) on 8849 beds and 24 clinics for women more than on 5 thousand visits per shift, nurseries-tsy and cases on 8 thousand beds, including 13 multi-profile children's BCs are put into operation. The consistent focus is provided on disaggregation of pediatric sites in children's policlinics which number for years of the tenth five-years period increased from 19,4 thousand up to 22 thousand that allowed to reduce number of the children falling on one site since 1045 to 800.

Further development was gained by the specialized help to women and children. On the basis of large clinics for women (see) specialized receptions for women with not incubation of pregnancy, infertility, endocrine disturbances will be organized. In a number of the cities and the areas of RSFSR medicogenetic consultations (see), consultations «A family and marriage» function. The network of specialized obstetric hospitals and departments for the pregnant women having extragenital diseases, not incubation of pregnancy, etc. develops. In practice of obstetric aid and to lay down. process in children's hospitals the intensive care and resuscitation is implemented that allows to reduce considerably a hospital lethality of children in the first days after the birth.

Successfully the All-Russian pulmonary children's center at the Moscow scientific research institute of pediatrics and children's surgery of M3 of RSFSR functions. The system of dispensary observation for children differentiated on age and a condition of their health gained distribution in children's policlinics. Considerable development in the republic was gained by network of specialized schools for children with vision disorders, hearing, a musculoskeletal system, defects of the speech, etc., in to-rykh the corresponding mode of occupations and rest is set, constant observation of doctors will be organized (see Sanatornolesnaya school, Boarding school). Bodies of health care and national education of the republic together with other ministries and departments conduct also a lot of work on expansion of network of specialized preschool institutions for detyoy, having defects of intellectual and physical development. In these institutions education and recovery treatment are combined. In 1980 specialized preschool institutions were visited by more than 60 thousand children.

Actively the All-Russian interdepartmental commission on baby food works. Constantly the number of milk kitchens increases (see. Milk kitchen). Min-vom of the food industry of RSFSR arranged production of preserved foods of baby food. Min-vom of the meat and milk industry only in 1979 put into operation 2 workshops on production of food stuffs for children of early age. The CPSU accepted by a May (1982) Plenum of the Central Committee «The food programme for the period till 1990» not only will provide supply of the population with food stuffs, no will create conditions for further increase in production of dietary products and expansion of the range of baby food.

The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further strengthening of the help to the families having children» (1981), accepted in development of decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU provided measures for improvement of financial position and living conditions of the families having children, and newlyweds for creation to women of more favorable conditions allowing to combine work in social production with education of children.

A lot of work is carried out by the All-Russian interdepartmental commission on fight against children's traumatism.

The important sphere of activity is an ensuring rest and improvement of children. In 1980 in RSFSR 674 children's sanatoria on 80 thousand beds functioned. The network of summer camps of sanatorium type extends (see. Summer camp) for children with diseases of cardiovascular system, a respiratory organs, digestion, kidneys, sight, etc. where they are treated, without interrupting study. In RSFSR the wide network of preschool institutions, generally a day nursery gardens is developed (see Day nursery, a day nursery gardens), to-rykh by 1981 there were 74,5 thousand; they were visited by 8149 thousand children. Except constant preschool institutions, during the summer period in the republic also playgrounds will be organized seasonal preschool; in 1980 they captured St. 2 million children, including 400 thousand children of preschool age. According to the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR (1959) enterprises, state farms, bodies of national education funds for construction of preschool institutions — a day nursery gardens are allocated. Construction of a separate day nursery since 1960 is stopped therefore the number of places in a day nursery of bodies of health care is annually reduced. Medical service of all preschool institutions is carried out by bodies of health care.

See also Children's hospital , Children's policlinic , Health protection of children and teenagers , Protection of motherhood and childhood .

Separate types of the specialized help.

Cardiological help. Help to patients with cardiovascular diseases is given both in usual-tsakh and policlinics, and in specialized offices, departments, clinics and sanatoria. In a number of the cities the advisory centers providing remote assessment of the ECG transferred from remote are created to lay down. institutions that promotes timely and exact diagnosis of a myocardial infarction. For 1983 — 1985 in the republic it is planned to organize annually St. 25 regional remote and diagnostic offices (centers). On the basis of the 2nd MMI the Scientific council on cardiovascular diseases at the Academic council of M3 of RSFSR is created. Are created republican scientific research institute of cardiology in Leningrad and its branch in Saratov. Cardiologists of the republic executed a number of basic researches in the field of a pathogeny, clinics, diagnoses and treatments cordial sosudi - * sty diseases. In particular * at the I All-Union conference on a subject «The hemostasis and vascular to walls (1981) was noted the significant contribution of scientists of RSFSR to the solution of one of key problems of preventive cardiology — relationship of processes of a thrombogenesis and atherosclerotic, defeats of a wall of vessels. Methodical bases of tool diagnosis of arterial hypertension by means of radio isotope p of angiographic methods are specified and improved. Much attention is paid to questions: early diagnosis of heart failure at a myocardial infarction. Methods of diagnosis and treatment of disturbances of a cordial rhythm * are profoundly developed and conductivity, monitor observation with use of the COMPUTER widely is implemented. In Saratov medical in-those are designed the prefixes to household tape recorders allowing to record to 300 ECGs with one cartridge during the carrying out mass inspection of the population and to carry out the subsequent interpretation of records on the COMPUTER. In the same place the method of identification by means of computers (on the basis of assessment of 19 risk factors) the persons which are under the threat of developing of a myocardial infarction that allowed to plan and perform its prevention is developed. In the Pyatigorsk scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of RSFSR basic researches on medical and labor rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease are conducted. The considerable attention is paid in the republic to development of measures for the prevention and treatment of cardiogenic shock, thromboembolism, aneurisms and cardiorrheses, a congestive circulatory unefficiency, etc. Wide use is received by practice of an aftercare and rehabilitation of the persons who had a myocardial infarction in specialized local sanatoria.

See also Cardiology, organization of the cardiological help .

Oncological help. In the republic the network of the specialized oncological clinics equipped with the modern medical and diagnostic equipment and the equipment, having shots of experienced specialists is created. A crucial role in the organization and holding preventive actions, a dignity. - the gleam, works among the population and an early .diagnostika of malignant new growths is allocated for doctors of all medical institutions, especially local therapists, and also surgeons, obstetricians-gynecologists, radiologists, etc. Scientific research in the field of development of new, more effective diagnostic methods and treatment of malignant new growths is widely conducted. The big contribution to this work is made research oncological and X-ray radiological in-you, in particular Moscow research oncological by in-t of P. A. Herzen, being head on this problem. Special attention is paid to development of methods • the organizations and performing mass routine medical examinations of the population for the purpose of early identification of patients tumoral and predopukho-levymp by diseases. In 1980 in RSFSR routine medical examinations captured 66,7 million persons. Considerably the percent of actively revealed patients with malignant new growths increased. More than a half of these patients after the carried-out treatment live more than 5 years.

See also Oncological service .

Antitubercular service. Almost in each administrative territory of RSFSR there is the 200 — 400 beds specialized antitubercular hospital that allows to satisfy the need for hospitalization of TB patients completely. The leading place belongs to the clinics which are the organizational and methodical centers but to prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. The special part is assigned to scientific research in the field of phthisiology; they are carried out by 6 republican scientific research institutes of tuberculosis. Also value of antitubercular sanatoria, in particular child care sanatorium and recreational facilities for patients of preschool and school age with the calming-down forms of tuberculosis is big; children are treated in these institutions to an absolute recovery. Thanks to improvement a dignity, - a gigabyte. working conditions and life, increase in material well-being and culture of the population, the accurate organization of the specialized ftiziatrichesky help in RSFSR managed to reach considerable decrease in incidence and tuberculosis mortality.

See also Tuberculosis, organization of fight against tuberculosis .

Dental help it appears to the population in 715 independent stomatol. policlinics and 11 919 stomatol. departments and offices (1980). For years of the tenth five-years period in the republic it was organized 87 stomatol. policlinics, 1415 dental and 225 dentoprosthetic departments and offices, security with doctors increased.

Development of network stomatol. institutions, completion by their shots and equipment by the modern equipment allowed to improve considerably the organization and to increase quality stomatol. help. The coverage of the population preventive sanitation of an oral cavity increased (see), certain success in the organization stomatol is achieved. the help to country people, the most progressive methods, including use of silver-palladium alloys, production of prostheses with porcelain teeth etc. are implemented into practice of prosthetic dentistry.

City dental policlinic of Belgorod.

See also Stomatology, organization of the dental help .

Sanatorium business. Though in imperial Russia a significant amount of areas with mineral sources was known and to lay down. only 36 low-power resorts with extremely primitive economy were dirt, on the eve of the revolution. In 1913 in Russia was apprx. 60 sanatoria on 3 thousand places for adults and children, and also several seasonal sanatoria and the kumysolechebnitsa functioning only in summertime. After Great October socialist revolution a dignity. - hens. treatment became property of broad masses of workers, the network of sanatoria and spa facilities in RSFSR considerably extended. In the territory of the republic resorts of almost all types are located, many from to-rykh enjoy wide popularity not only in our country, but also abroad. The largest resorts are located in the south, in the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions: Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region (Yessentuki, Kislovodsk, Zheleznovodsk, Pyatigorsk), resorts of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus (Sochi, Anapa, Gelendzhik, Kabardian), Yeysk, Hot Key, Teberda, Nalchik, Serno-vodsk-Kavkazsky, Talgi, etc. Also the resorts located in other districts are widely used: balneal — Belokurikha, Da-rasun, the Izhevsk Mineralnye Vody, Cook, Kuldur, Lower Ser-gi, Paratunka, Ust-Kachka, Sickly in, Shmakovka, etc.; mud — Varzi-Yatchi, the Lake Karachi, Lipetsk, Tinaki, Elton, etc.; climatic — the Leningrad resort area, the Vladivostok resort area, Olentuy, Chemal, etc.; klimatokumysolechebny — Joint stock company-sakovo, Krasnaya Polyana, Swan, Manych, the Verkhnetroitsky kumysolechebny region, Shafranovo, Yumatovo, Yutaz, etc.; balneo-climatic and balneogryazevy — Arshan, Bakirovo, Kashin, Kisegach, Krainka, Krasnousolsk, Kuryi, Bear, Semi-precious stone, Sergiyevsky Mineralnye Vody, Staraya Russa, Thawed, Uvilda, Usolye Siberian, At plagues, Shivand, Shir, Yamarovk, etc. Further expansion and improvement a dignity is provided. - hens. zones, especially in the Urals, in Siberia and in the Far East, further development of resort areas and tourist bases on the coast of the Black Sea and in mountain districts. The perspective direction in use of resort factors is construction in the large cities and industrial centers of water mud baths on the basis of the removed mineral sources and close located deposits to lay down. dirt.

Total number of sanatoria and institutions of rest in RSFSR reached 6572 (tab. 5) in 1980. In them it was treated and the St. 23 million people (tab. 6) had a rest. In addition, in 1980 in RSFSR 1844 institutions of rest one - and two-day stay on 130 thousand places functioned. In sanatoria, institutions of rest, on tourist routes and bases in 1980 34,5 million workers and members of their families had a rest, from them 5,2 million used one - and two-day rest, 6,1 million — had a rest on tourist routes of the day off. From number it is long the having a rest 25% received permits at the expense of means of social insurance and the state budget — only 30% of cost are free or at preferential prices with payment. Besides, hundreds of thousands of workers received permits free of charge or at preferential prices at the expense of means of the enterprises from fund of welfare actions. More than 13 million children and teenagers during the summer spent vacation at summer and school camps, on excursion and tourist bases or left for the summer period to the country place with child care facilities. 89,9 million people participated in excursions.

The large role in development of resort matter in the republic is played by the scientific research institutes of balneology and physical therapy (in Pyatigorsk, Sverdlovsk, Sochi and Tomsk) developing problems of use of mineral and radon waters to lay down. dirt, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment, questions of use of resort resources of Cisural area, Urals, Siberia and the Far East.

See also Rest house , Resorts , Boarding house , Recreation , Sanatorium .

Sanitarno - epidemiological service

In pre-revolutionary Russia was all the 257th dignity. doctors, to-rye worked only to 21 provinces.

Improvement of the cities was on extremely low level, a water supply system only 215 cities had, the sewerage — 23, the extent of a water supply system made 5125 km, sewer — 1708 km. For years of the Soviet power bodies of health care of the republic did the great job directed to upgrading and efficiency state a dignity. supervision * strengthening of material and technical resources of the main institutions dignity. services — SES, preparation of shots of specialists for them. In 1980 in the territory of the republic functioned 2562 SES, in sanitary and epidemic institutions 27,1 thousand doctors worked. For years of the tenth five-years period it was constructed 174 SES, 800 complex laboratories are organized, 7145 doctors are directed to work in sanitary and epidemiologic institutions. Dignity. doctors in the republic are trained on the 11th dignity. - a gigabyte. f-takh medical in-comrade. Scientific and methodical help dignity. render to service 22 research in-that a gigabyte. profile.

The important place in activity of sanitary and epidemiologic institutions belongs to their collaboration with various design organizations, developmental bureaus, technical research in-ta, the industrial enterprises, buildings, state farms and collective farms. In SES sanitary councils, and in research in-ta a gigabyte are organized. a profile — departments or sectors on a dignity. to examination of projects.

For the expert and advisory help with questions precautionary a dignity. supervision all research in-you are a gigabyte. a profile are attached to certain autonomous republics, edges and the areas of RSFSR. Bodies dignity. supervision of RSFSR take active part in development of master plans of development of the cities that allows to resolve issues of improvement of structure of the cities, withdrawal from districts of housing building of the industrial enterprises, the organizations of sanitary protection zones, etc.

In the conditions of snowballing of the industry and power into the forefront the problem of protection from pollution of free air, reservoirs and the soil acted, the successful decision a cut requires combination of efforts of specialists of all industries, uche-nykh-hygienists and practical a dignity. doctors (see. Sanitary protection of free air, Sanitary protection of reservoirs, Sanitary protection of the soil). In 1972. The resolution «About Measures for Further Improvement of Nature Protection and Rational Use of Natural Resources» was accepted the Supreme Council of the USSR. Also governmental decrees on protection of Lake Baikal, prevention of pollution of the Volga Rivers and the Urals by the crude drain waters, etc. are adopted. Since 1971 actions for environmental control (see) join in the economic plan of the republic as its obligatory part. In days of the tenth five-years period performance of actions for nature protection at the enterprises of various industries (paper, food, meat-and-milk) located in river basins of Volga and the Baltic Sea in Krasnodar Krai, the Rostov and Kemerovo regions, in Voronezh, Ufa and Omsk was studied. Much attention during the development of master plans of development of Saratov, Astrakhan, Makhachkala, Vologda, Lipetsk, Birch forests, Tobolsk, Neryungri was paid to questions of environmental control and improvement of the inhabited places. Thanks to consecutive work of the industrial ministries and sanitary and epidemiologic service, despite increase of production capacity, a dignity. the condition of the air basin improved even in such large industrial centers as Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, Volgograd, Chelyabinsk, Kuibyshev, etc. Any again put into operation industrial enterprise is not accepted without treatment facilities. In RSFSR the actions providing complete cessation of dumping into reservoirs crude or not enough purified and neutralized sewage are carried out. The majority of the large cities and the industrial enterprises located in basins of the Volga Rivers, the Urals, Don, and also the Black, Azov, Baltic and Caspian seas have biol. treatment facilities.

As a result of the carried-out work improved a dignity. condition of the territory of the republic. Security of urban population with high-quality drinking water increased from 218 l on the person in days in 1975 up to 250 l in 1980. From year to year the number of the cities having the sewerage (see) increases with a full complex of cleaning. The general power of sewer treatment facilities only for years of the tenth five-years period increased by 15 million m3 a day.

Complex purposeful work on fight with inf is continued. diseases. Thanks to active cooperation of bodies of health care of the republic from mines - you educations, the food, fishing, meat and milk industry, trade, housing-and-municipal and agriculture, activities of research in-t for development of means of specific prevention and to their implementation in practice in the territory of RSFSR are liquidated many inf for a long time. diseases, and cases of diseases, e.g., of diphtheria and whooping cough gained sporadic character.

Active participation in work on a dignity. to supervision accepts the public (see. Public health inspector). In particular, will be organized by efforts of the Head sanitary and epidemiologic department of M3 of RSFSR, republican SES and the Central committee of Society of the Red Cross of RSFSR public a dignity. inspections at executive committees of village councils of People's Deputies; by 1981 13 723 such inspections functioned, in to-rykh 290 thousand public a dignity worked. inspectors. They take active part in the solution of questions of improvement a dignity. conditions of objects of page - x. productions, sources of water supply, settlements, houses and shops, environmental control, and also increase in level dignity. cultures of the population.

See also Sanitary legislation , Sanitary inspection , Sanitary and epidemiologic service .

Sanitary education

In a dignity. - a gleam, work among the population all institutions of bodies of health care take active part that in the light of problems of prevention (see Prevention primary) has special value. The leading role in a dignity. - the gleam, work belongs to Houses of sanitary education, to-rye are engaged not only directly a dignity. - a gleam, work among the population, but also are the organizational and methodical centers for the organization of this work in all to lay down. - the prof. institutions (see the House of sanitary education). In RSFSR Houses of sanitary education are available in each area, edge and the autonomous republic; activity heads them the republican House of sanitary education. Are widely used for the dignity is more whole. educations of mass media: radio, television, press.

Actively the dignity participates in increase. cultures of the population Society of the Red Cross of RSFSR (see the Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR). For the interested gigabyte. and medical questions everywhere create national high fur boots of medical knowledge. In 1980 in RSFSR 2597 such high fur boots worked (2093 — in the cities, 504 — in rural areas); in them 580 thousand listeners were engaged.

See also Sanitary education .

Pharmaceutical business

Before Great October socialist revolution of a drugstore in Russia were concentrated in hands of individuals. In 1913 in the territory of present RSFSR there were a little more than 2 thousand small drugstores. About 2/3 all medicines were imported into Russia from abroad. Development in days of the Soviet power of provision of medicines of the republic led to considerable expansion of network of drugstores and pharmaceutical points. Only for years of the tenth five-years period in the republic 776 drugstores, including in the Nonchernozem zone — 106, in Siberia and in the Far East — 110, in rural areas — 79 were open. 150,8 thousand sq.m of warehouse for medicines and medical equipment are opened up. Total number of drugstores, pharmaceutical points, shops and booths in RSFSR reached nearly 70 thousand in 1980. The organization of new drugstores and reconstruction of operating allowed to improve the medicinal help to the population. Boards of Pharmacy systematically release and direct in to lay down. institutions information materials about intake of new medicines. Considerably security of the population with pharmaceuticals improved. Under constant control there is a provision of medicines of children, disabled people and participants of the Great Patriotic War. For improvement of work of rural drugstores and pharmaceutical points on the basis of the best drugstores of the regional centers the central regional drugstores were created, to-rye provide the organizational and methodical management of all pharmaceutical institutions of the district, carry out supply of rural drugstores with medicines, the equipment and equipment.

See also Drugstore , Pharmaceutical management .

Medical industry

In pre-revolutionary Russia medical and chemical - pharm. the industry as independent industries did not exist. The separate small plants and the small handicraft enterprises producing the elementary medicines, the medical equipment and tools belonged to hl. obr. to foreigners. After Great October socialist revolution the medical industry began to develop in high gear, especially in post-war years. Many new enterprises were constructed, tens of the plants were reconstructed: Saransk the zavodmeditsinsky equipment, the Tyumen medical equipment factory and tools, Usolye-Sibir-sky chemical and pharmaceutical plant, the Krasnoyarsk, Penza and Saransk plants of medical supplies, the Kazan and Mozhaisk medico-tool plants, the Leningrad plant of Medpolimera, the Belgorod vitamin plant, Leningrad chemical - pharm. Pharmakon plant, Klin and Solnechnogorsk glass-works, Irbit chemical and pharmaceutical plant, Rybinsk plant of-point optics, Kazan plant of suture surgical materials, etc. In the industry the new research and design organizations were created, e.g. Novokuznetsk research chemical and pharmaceutical in-t with a pilot zavodokhm. The party and the Government highly appreciated work of staff of the enterprises medical and chemical - pharm. the industries, many from to-rykh were awarded by memorable signs and the passing Red banners of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, brought on the All-Union honor roll at ENEA of the USSR, awarded by awards.

See also Medical industry , Medical equipment , Chemical pharmaceutical industry .

Medical education and shots

Educational case of the Bashkir medical institute, Ufa.
Pupils of the Ulyanovsk medical school in an office of preclinical practice on obstetrics and gynecology.

Before revolution in the territory of modern RSFSR there were only 7 higher educational institutions preparing medical shots including in Siberia and in the Far East only one educational institution — Tomsk un-t. In 1980 training of doctors and druggists to RSFSR was carried out 41 medical and pharmaceutical in-you are M3 of RSFSR, 5 medical higher education institutions of M3 of the USSR and 6 medical f-tov high fur boots; 17 medical higher education institutions are located in the districts of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. As a part of the highest medical educational institutions — medical, sanitary and hygienic, pediatric and pharmaceutical f-you, and in the 2nd MMI and Tomsk medical in-those, besides, are available medicobiological f-you. In 1980/81 academic years in medical in-ta and in RSFSR studied for a medical f-takh of high fur boots apprx. 200 thousand students, the release made them apprx. 30 thousand people. Medical in-you or medical f-you high fur boots are available in 9 autonomous republics (see. Medical institutes). Doctors increase - the professional skill in in-ta of improvement of doctors of the M3 of the USSR located in the territory of RSFSR (in Moscow, Leningrad, Kazan, Novokuznetsk, etc.), and also on f-takh improvements and professional development at medical in-ta (see Institutes of improvement of doctors, the Central institute of improvement of doctors).

The paramedical staff is prepared by the average medical educational institutions which are available in each autonomous republic, area and the region of RSFSR. In total in RSFSR in 1980 there were 377 averages of medical educational institutions, in to-rykh studied apprx. 250 thousand pupils, the release made them apprx. 85 thousand people. So powerful network of educational institutions promotes completion of healthcare institutions necessary shots. For years of development of RSFSR their number continuously increased (tab. 7). If by the beginning of 1914 in the territory, the corresponding present RSFSR, only 15,9 thousand doctors (1,8 doctors for 10 thousand population) and 26 thousand average medics worked (2,9 for 10 thousand population), then by 1980 the number of doctors increased more than by 35 times, and the number of paramedical staff — more than by 60 times.

The highest security with doctors in 1980 on 10 thousand population was reached (without Moscow and Leningrad) in the Astrakhan Region — 60,6, North Ossetian the ASSR — 56,3, the Kamchatka Region — 53,3, the Magadan Region — 50,8, the Murmansk Region — 47,8, the Sakhalin Region — 47,6, Khabarovsk Krai — 45,9.

Before revolution in the districts of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East there were only 2 thousand doctors (12,5% of total number of the doctors who were available in Russia), by 1940 their number increased up to 17,4 thousand that makes 19,1% in relation to total number of doctors in the republic, and by 1981 in the Ural, West Siberian, East Siberian and Far East districts worked already apprx. 160 thousand doctors of all specialties, or 35% of all doctors in RSFSR (tab. 8). In this plan the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» was of great importance (1977), the Crimea further development of health care of Siberia, the Far East and Far North is provided.

In days of the tenth and eleventh five-years periods much attention was paid and given to completion by doctors of stations of emergency medical service, polyclinic institutions and especially local service. Also the number of the doctors sent for work to rural areas increases. So, for years of the tenth five-years period it increased from 5500 people (1975) to 6800 (1980).

Among the doctors working in RSFSR many are awarded an honorary title «The honored doctor of RSFSR», to more than 120 doctors and scientists coppers-kam the high rank of the Hero of Socialist Work is given (see. Physicians are Heroes of Socialist Work ), 15 people (for January 1, 1982) were awarded an honorary title «The national doctor of the USSR» (see. Honorary titles ).

Medical science

For years of the Soviet power in the territory of RSFSR the wide network of research institutes was created (see) and laboratories, a considerable part to-rykh is under authority of M3 of the USSR and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Under the authority of M3 of RSFSR there are 70 scientific research institutes both 41 medical and formatsev-tichesky in-t. At departments of the highest medical educational institutions all necessary conditions for carrying out scientific research are created. For improvement of conditions for scientific activity in a number of medical in-t the central research laboratories (CRL) equipped with the modern equipment and having constant staff of research associates and support personnel are created (see. Central research laboratory). For years of the tenth five-years period 8 new TsNIL were organized. In medical in-ta of RSFSR also problem laboratories headed by outstanding scientists are created to-rye conduct scientific research on the most topical issues of science.

See also Health care workforce , Medical education .

The network of research laboratories and institutions in the republic constantly extends. Only for years of the tenth five-years period in RSFSR it was organized 7 new scientific iss to a ledovata lsk by their in-comrade. Events for enlargement and improvement of structure of scientific institutions, specification of their profile are held. Much attention is paid to development of scientific institutions of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Scientists-physicians of the Siberian department of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in the commonwealth with scientists of the Siberian department of Academy of Sciences of the USSR conduct, in particular, researches on questions of adaptation of the person in various klimato-geo-graphic Regions of Siberia, the Far East, Far North. The permanent complex expedition on biomedical support of construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline functions. Valuable scientific information in the most difficult conditions of the Polar region is collected, a number of features of functioning of various systems of a human body in the conditions of the North is found out. Interdepartmental laboratories are created, to-rye conduct researches on questions of genetics (see), immunology (see), biophysics (see), mathematical modeling (see).

M3 research establishments of RSFSR, without being limited to development of scientific problems, give at the same time daily specific help to bodies of health care on implementation of scientific achievements in practice to lay down. - prof. of institutions, conduct big lechebnokonsultativny work, prepare scientific shots and carry out training of qualified specialists. For a number of years the M3 of RSFSR realizes a new form of work — the cooperation of research in-t and higher education institutions with bodies of practical health care regulated by annual joint plans, a cut decrease in incidence and the increase in working capacity working implementation of scientific achievements in practice is oriented to improvement of medical aid to the population.

Laboratory on production of artificial crystalline lenses of the Moscow research institute of microsurgery of an eye M3 of RSFSR.

Directs research activity of republican research in-t and the highest medical educational institutions and controls Head department of research insti-gut and coordination of scientific research (G U I and KNI) and Academic medical council of M3 of RSFSR with the problem commissions called at a central board, to-rye work in close contact with head research in-ta. In the republic' the system of actions io to improvement of forms and methods, planning of scientific research and the organization of implementation in practice of achievements of medical science is carried out. The main scientific profile, the highest medical educational institutions is defined. The long-term target programs of researches including 34 problems are developed.

The research organizations of the republic participate in work on 7 republican and 4 allied programs. Programs of the republican level «Cardiovascular Diseases», «Organ and tissue transplantation», «The Most Important Diseases of Organs of Sight», «Carcinoma of the Stomach, Chest Glands, Neck of Uterus» are of especially great importance among them.

In research in-ta and the highest medical educational institutions of RSFSR highly qualified specialists, among to-rykh many full members and corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, honored workers of science of RSFSR work. The huge contribution to development of medical science and practice was brought by outstanding scientists of our country: surgeons A. N. Bakulev, H. N. Burdenko, A. A. Vishnevsky, A. V. Vishnevsky, P. A. Herzen, Yu. Yu. Dzhanelidze, H. N. Elansky, V. A. Oppel, H. N. Petrov, H. N. Priorov, S. I. Spasokukotsky, S. S. Yudin; therapists V. N. Vinogradov, M. S. Vovsi, B. E. Votchal, V. F. Zelenin, I. A. Kassirsky, M. P. Konchalovsky, G. F. Lang, A. L. Myasnikov; dediatra Yu. F. Dombrovskaya, M. S. Maslov, G. N. Speransky, A. F. T'g/r; social hygienists and organizers of health care M. I. Barsukov, M. F. Vladimirsky, G. N. Kaminsky, S. V. Kura-shov, P. I. Kurkin, V. P. Lebedeva, G. A. Miterev, N. A. Semashko, 3. P. Solovyov; P. K. L physiologists codeine., L. A. Orbeli, I. P. Pavlov, B. V. Larin, A. A. Ukhtomsky; microbiologists and N. F. Ga-maley's epidemiologists, 3. V. Ermolyeva, L. A. Zil-ber, E. I. M of artsinovskiya, L. A. 7 \g-rasevich; psychiatrists of H. N. Bazhenov, V. M. Bekhterev, P. B. Gannushkin, P. P. Kashchenko; pathologists A. I. Abrikosov, H. N. Anichkov, I. V. Davydovsky; biochemists A. N. Bach, A. N. Belozersky, B. I. Zbar-sky, S. R. Mardashev\M. I. Averbakh, V. P. Filatov is ophthalmologists; obstetricians-gynecologists M. S. Malinovsky, L. S. Persianinov; parasitologists P. G. Sergiyev, E. N. Pavlovsky; scientists of other specialties — N. I. Vavilov, B. I. Lavrentyev, M. I. Nemenov, V. D. Rakhmanov, G. I. Rossov of hell, A. N. Sysin, etc., many from to-rykh worked in medical higher education institutions, research in-ta and bodies of health care of RSFSR.

Total number of research associates p the faculty on 1/1 — made 1980 26 010 people, including doctors of medical sciences 2013, candidates of medical sciences 12 372. Preparation of scientific shots is carried out in a wedge, an internship and a postgraduate study, to-rye are founded in all medical in-ta and research institutes.

For attraction to research of a wide range of practical doctors and distribution of achievements of medical science to RSFSR are created scientific medical about-va, intended for association of scientists and doctors for discussion of the most important issues of medical science and health care, for assistance of health care to bodies, interchange by experience, wide information and promotion of the latest developments of science in the field of diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The leadership in activity All-Russian scientific medical about-in and through them local about-in carries out GUNII and KNI of M3 of RSFSR.

In RSFSR medical magazines are issued: «The health care of the Russian Federation», «The Soviet medicine», «Protection of motherhood and the childhood», «Nurse», «The Kazan medical magazine», to-rye help to popularize achievements of medical science and experience of practical health care of the republic.

Budget of health care

Expenses on welfare needs, including and on health care, occupied insignificant specific weight in the budget of imperial Russia. Expenses on health care in 1980 in comparison with 1940 increased in RSFSR almost by 16 times, apart from expenses on preparation of medical shots and development of scientific research; besides, funds for health care are allocated by the state, cooperative, trade-union and other organizations, and also collective farms (see. Planning of health care , Economy of health care ).

See also Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .


Table 1. VITAL RATES in the territory of RSFSR from 1913 to 1980 (on 1000 people)



Table 4. DEVELOPMENT of SPECIALIZED BED FUND in 1940 — 1980.



Table 7. INDICATORS of GROWTH of SECURITY of the POPULATION of RSFSR with MEDICAL SHOTS from 1940 to 1980.


Bibliography: Trofimov V. V. Health care of the Russian Federation in 50 years, M., 1967; about N e, the Main results of development of health care of the Russian Federation for years of the tenth five-years period, Zdravookhr. Grew. Federations, No. 2, page 3, 1981; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. edition B. V. Petrovsky, M., 1977.

V. V. Trofimov.