RUSH Benjamin (Rush Benjamin, 1745 — 1813) — the American scientist-educator, the public figure, the founder of psychiatry in the USA.
Left Pristonsky's college un-that (1760) and Edinburgh un-t; doctor of medicine (1768). From 1769 to 1776 B. Rush worked as the practical doctor and at the same time (1769 — 1789) was professor of chemistry, and then professor of medicine of college in Philadelphia. Since 1783 and until the end of life worked in the Pennsylvanian hospital; since 1791 — professor Pennsylvanian un-that.
B. Rush published about 40 scientific works. It prepared the USA first guide to chemistry; the book on psychology is published («About influence of the physical reasons on moral ability of the person», 1784). Its scientific and organizational activity in the field of psychiatry had special value. He organized in the Pennsylvanian hospital special department for mentally sick; applied work therapy, medicamentous drugs to their treatment, implemented psychotherapy in medical practice. It created classification of mental diseases. He gave special value in an etiology of mental diseases to disturbances of blood supply of a brain. It designed the special rotating chair, a cut increased inflow of blood to the head and had to have, according to the inventor, therapeutic effect. Views on problems of an etiology and a pathogeny of mental diseases are stated to them in the work «Medical Researches and Observations over Sincere Diseases» (1812) which within only 19 century was the only thing an amer. guide to psychiatry. He devoted a number of researches to studying of physiology of digestion in a stomach, diagnosis and to treatment of yellow fever, the organization of health care, etc.
On formation of scientific outlook of B. Russia the great influence was exerted by U. Kullen. Generally B. Rush adhered to materialistic views; recognized dependence of thinking and a will on perception of the outside world and activity of a brain, interference of mental and somatic processes. However on a nek-eye he stated to questions idealistic (deistic) representations, believing that the religious ideas exert beneficial influence on mental and physical health of the person. B. Rush stated the philosophical views in work of «A thought of common sense» (1791).
B. Rush is the participant of the war of independence in North America (1775 — 1783), the associate of Washington (G. Washington), Jefferson (Th. Iefferson) and Franklin (V. Franklin). In 1776 as the deputy of the congress from Pennsylvania signed the Declaration of independence of the USA. Since 1777 he was the chief surgeon of the American army. Its performances for cancellation of slavery and the death penalty, against alcoholism and smoking of tobacco are known. Since 1779 he was a scientific specialist in treasures of Mint of the USA.
In the homeland Russia the memorial House museum is open for B.
Works: De coctione ciborum in ventriculo, Edinburgh, 1768; Sermons to the rich and studious, on temperance and exercise, L., 1772; The new method of inoculating for the small-pox, Philadelphia, 1781; Medical inquiries and observations, v. 1 2 Philadelphia, 1789 — 1893; An account of the bilious remitting and remitting, yellow fever, as it appeared in Philadelphia in the year 1793, Philadelphia, 1794; Sixteen introductory lectures to courses of lectures upon the institutes and practice of medicine, with a syllabus of the latter, To which are added, two lectures upon the pleasures of the senses and of the mind, with an inquiry into their proximate cause, delivered in the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1811; Medical inquiries and observations upon diseases of the mind, Philadelphia, 1812.
Bibliography: Rokhlin. Sketches of psychiatry, page 18, M., 1967; I r Osh e in with to and y M. G. Istoriya of psychology of page 155, 161, M., 1976; Carlson E. T. Benjamin Rush on revolutionary war hygiene, Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med., v 55 p 614, 1979; Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, ed. by A. M. Freedman a. H. I. Kaplan, Baltimore, 1967; Rush A. R. Benjamin Rush, M. D. (1745 — 1813), his origins and ancestry, Trans. Stud. Coll. Phycns Philad., v. 44, p. 9, 1976.
A. G. Gerish, M. V. Korkina.