RUBNER Max (Rubner Max, 1854 — 1932) — the German physiologist and the hygienist, K. Foyt's pupil, the member of the Berlin academy .nauk, the honorary member of National academy of Sciences of the USA.
In 1878 professor of hygiene in Marburg, since 1891 the director Gigiyenicheskogo in-that in Berlin, professor Berlin un-that ended Leipzig un-t, since 1885.
M. Rubner is an author more than 360 scientific works. He developed new methodical approaches to studying of thermodynamics of live organisms, proved applicability of the law of energy conservation for an explanation of metabolic processes in biol. systems, gave the analysis of specific dynamic action of food, determined sizes of energy value of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (respectively 4,1; 9,3 and 4,1 kcal/g), what allowed to establish the rule of an izodinamiya (a power equivalence for an organism of 1 g of protein, 0,44 g of fat and 1 g of carbohydrates of food). It formulated «the rule of a body surface» — relative constancy of power consumption hematothermal animals counting on a surface unit of a body. M. Rubner found out that for doubling of weight of newborn animals different biol. types (but not the person) approximately identical amount of energy, despite distinctions in the speed of their growth is required; studied interrelation of energy balance and aging. M. Rubner dealt also with issues of hygiene of the environment, studying of the actual food of the population, proved a gigabyte. value of clothes, developed methods of disinfection. M. Rubner was an editor of the capital guide to hygiene of «Handbuch der Hygiene» and a number of scientific magazines. The famous physiologist and the hygienist U. Etuoter was a pupil and Rubner's follower.
Works: The textbook of hygiene, the lane with it., SPb., 1897; Die Gesetze des Energieverbrauchs bei der Ernahrung, Lpz. — Wien, 1902; Das Problem der Lebensdauer und seine Beziehungen zu Wachstum und Ernahrung, Miinchen — B., 1908.
Bibliography: Shaternikov M. H. Max Rubner, Vopr. pitas., t. 1, No. 4, page 92, 1932; Chambers W. N of Max RUB-ner, J. Nutr., v. 48, p. 3, 1952; K i s s-k a 1 t K. Zu Rubners 100. Geburtstag, Arch. Well g. (Berl.), Bd 138, S. 235, 1954.
V. A. Konyshev.