ROTTING (putrefactio) — process of splitting organic, nitrogen-containing, hl. obr. proteinaceous, substances as a result of life activity of microorganisms. G.'s processes in a human body in patol, conditions can bring to endointoxications (see).
Plays an extremely important role in cycle of matter in the nature. Thanks to putrefactive decomposition of difficult organic components of plants and the died animals, excrement of animals (urine, kcal) and annually dying off parts of plants (leaves) there are elementary substances — carbonic acid, ammonia, water, nitric, nitrogenous, sulfuric and phosphoric to - you which are used in wildlife for synthesis of complex organic compounds of new living material and cells of plants, and through them and zooblasts. Putrefactive processes also are of great importance for medicine, napr, at education to lay down. dirt, biol, sewage treatment etc. Extent of decomposition of proteic matters at G. depends on influence of light, aeration, temperature, reaction of the environment, atmospheric pressure, presence of antiseptic substances, etc. Proteinaceous molecules in aerobic conditions are exposed to deeper disintegration with formation of a set of intermediate and end products of G. (up to water and gases); in anaerobic conditions, on the contrary, less products of G. are formed, but they are more toxic for live organisms.
About G.'s beginning judge by data microscopic, chemical, physical. - chemical and other methods of the analysis, and also on emergence of a specific putrefactive smell. The amount of ammonia in meat at emergence of a smell is increased to 2% (in fresh meat — 0,14%). One of initial products of ichorization of protein are peptones (mix of peptides) causing poisoning of an organism at parenteral administration. Further disintegration leads to formation of free amino acids or biogenic amines, and then ammonia, water, carbon dioxide gas, hydrogen sulfide etc.
G. of proteins occurs under the influence of microbic enzymes. Depending on the nature of enzymes this process can proceed, according to V. S. Gulevich, in the direction: 1) hydrolysis (see), 2) deaminations (see), 3) decarboxylations (see), 4) recovery by hydrogen, 5) oxidations by oxygen of air or water. All these processes promote formation of a set of various products of putrefactive decomposition of organic matters.
At G. of meat, fibrin and fish the ptomaine named by Selmi is formed ptomaines (see); L. Brieger allocated and identified from products of. neurine (see), pentamethylenediamine (see), putrestsin — C 4 H 12 N 2 , sincaline (see), ethylene diamine — C 2 H 4 (NH 2 ) 2 etc. At disintegration of cysteine, cystine and methionine are formed taurine — C 2 H 7 NO 3 S, ethyl sulfide — C 4 H 10 S, methyl mercaptan — CH 3 SH and hydrogen sulfide having off-flavor. At G. also ammonia, methylamine — CH are formed 3 NH 2 , dimethylamine — (CH 3 ) 2 NH, trimethylamine — (CH 3 ) 3 N, carbonic acid, hydrogen, methane. Formation of the listed substances is caused by enzymatic transformations of the amino acids which are released at G. of proteins or is result of synthesis of these substances from simpler products which are formed at. In the course of G., in addition to proteinogenic amines, are formed of cyclic amino acids: from a histidine, except histamine (see) — an imidazole silt Pyroracemic and urocanic to - you, from phenylalanine (see) and tyrosine (see) — phenyl-pyruvic, paraoxyphenyl-pyruvic, phenyl-lactic and oxyphenyl-lactic to - you. Oxyphenyl-lactic to - that turns in coumaric to - that, further disintegration a cut leads to formation of cresol — HO • C6H4 • CH3, hydroxybenzoic to - you are HO • With 6 H 4 • COOH and phenol — HO • With 8 H 5 . Besides, at decarboxylation of phenylalanine, tyrosine and 5 oxytryptophanes are formed respectively feniletilamin, tyramine (see) and serotonin (see), possessing, as well as a histamine, strong pharmakodinamichesky properties. At G. corresponding oksi-also ketonic acids (e.g., indolylpropionic or skatole acetic to - you) are also formed of tryptophane and, besides skatole (see) and indole (see), possessing toxic action. At G. there is also recovery deamination of amino acids connected with release of amino groups and education limit carboxylic to - t. So, glycine turns in acetic, alanine — in propionic, valine — in isovalerianic and a leucine — in methylethylpropionic to - that. Of ornithine and proline at G. it is formed gamma and aminovalerian to - that, from glutaminic to - you — glutaric, of a lysine — ε-aminocaproic to - that to - that to - that, from asparaginic to - you — amber to - that. Besides, in the course of G. are formed of a histidine and phenylalanine respectively imidazolilpropionovy and fenilpropionovy to - you.
Also complex proteins are exposed, and unlike their proteinaceous component a nonprotein part (prosthetic group) undergoes a number of specific transformations. So, at G. of nucleoproteids released nucleinic to - you break up up to the free purine and pirimidinovy bases. Purine bases under the influence of specific bacterial dezamidaz turn in hypoxanthine (see) and xanthine (cm); the last in aerobic conditions with the participation of a xanthineoxidase of putrefactive bacteria are oxidized to uric to - you, edges further is split on urea and ammonium carbonate. Urea is formed also at ichorization of the pirimidinovy bases. In turn urea under the influence of bacterial urease is split on carbonic acid and ammonia. Gem of hemoglobin at G. passes into hematin or as a result of a number of turning into stercobilinogen (see Stercobilin). In the course of G. of phosphoproteins hydrogen phosphide is formed, and at G. of letsitin — trimethylamine. Carbonic acid, ammonia, methane, methylamine, muscarine, neurine belong to products of ichorization of sincaline. Kephalins at G. break up to glycerin, fat to - you, phosphoric to - that and ethanolamine — HO•CH 2 • CH 2 • NH 2 . Cholesterol — C 27 H 46 O at G. is exposed to recovery to coprosterol — C 27 H 48 O.
Of proteins in a digestive tract of the person generally occurs in lower parts of intestines where there are optimum conditions for growth of putrefactive bacteria. Normal intensity of processes of G. in intestines is insignificant. However at many patol, states which are followed by allocation in a gleam of a gut of blood, pus, various exudates (at a peptic ulcer, tumors, an infection, poisonings, food intoxications, etc.) as well as at intestinal impassability, putrefactive processes amplify and can cause an endointoxication. The poisonous decomposition products of cyclic amino acids formed in the course of G. — an indole, skatole, phenol, cresol and others — after absorption come to a liver where are neutralized by synthesis of steam rooms, indifferent for an organism, sulfuric or glucuronic to - t. For neutralization of other products of ichorization in intestines, napr, biogenic amines, the organism has specific enzymes (see. Diaminoksidaza , Monoamine oxidase ), catalyzing oxidizing deamination of biogenic amines. Fiziol, a role of these aminoxidases is huge if to consider that various disorders of mental activity, in particular catatonic conditions and some forms of nonsense, are caused by intoxication of a brain biogenic amines of an endogenous origin. There are data on communication of a renal hypertension with falloff of contents a shooting gallery of amine in kidneys. Strengthening of processes of G. in intestines is demonstrated by the raised excretion indican (see) together with urobilinigen with urine, while increase in removal bilious pigments (see) and urobilinigen with urine it is connected with gepatobiliarny pathology.
The greatest value for medicine has a question of prevention of a possibility of development of processes of G. in wounds (see. Putrefactive infection ). For this purpose it is necessary to eliminate first of all access of putrifactive microorganisms and their dispute to open wound surfaces and, besides, to prevent reproduction of the bacteria which already got there. Are for this purpose applied various physical. (UVCh, etc.) or chemical agents (antiseptic agents, harmless to the person, phytoncides, some antibiotics etc.). The same agents are used for prevention of development of gnilosty processes at conservation of food stuffs, at storage of clothes, etc.
Bibliography: Braunstein A. E. Biochemistry of amino-acid exchange, page 92, etc., M., 1949, bibliogr!.; Daman S. R. Food infections and food poisonings, the lane with English, page 8, etc., M. — L., 1930; Zlatogorov S. I. The doctrine about microorganisms, the p. 3, with, 203, Pg., 1918, bibliogr.; Lenindzher A. Biochemistry, the lane with English, page 645, etc. * M., 1976; The Swordsman about in I. I. Etudes about *, human nature, M., 1925; Guggenheim M. Die bio-genen Amine und ihre Bedeutung ftir die Physiologie und Pathologie des pflanzli-chen und tierichen Stoffwechsels, Basel — N.Y., 1951; Meister A. Biochemistry of the amino acids, v. 2, p. 325 a. o., N. Y. — L., 1965; Pacheco G. de Almeida W. A. Sobre os indices of urin£rios de intoxi-sadao (putrefacao), intestinal, Brasil-med., v. 64, p. 131, 1950.
T. T. Berezov.