ROMANIA (The socialist Republic Romania, SRR) — the socialist state in the southeast of Europe, in the basin of the lower Danube, borders on the friendly socialist countries. The area is 237 500 sq.km Nadstrochny text . The population — 22 201 387 zhit. (for July 1, 1980). The capital — Bucharest (1 988 610 zhit., 1980). Administrative division: 40 counties and the municipium Bucharest having the special status; 236 cities (from to-rykh 56 have self-government), 2 705 communes (13124 villages). Ofits. language — Romanian.
In the territory of R. almost equal spaces are occupied by mountains of average height (34%), hilly heights (35%) and lowlands (31%). Carpathians Mountains dugoobrazno cross the territory of the country from the North to the southwest. Continental temperate climate.
In August, 1944, in the conditions of defeat of fascist troops by the Soviet Army in Yassko-Kishinevsky operation, the Romanian workers under the direction of the Communist Party overthrew voyennofashistsky dictatorship. During further development of revolution, social and national release a number of deep democratic transformations is carried out (including agrarian reform), the monarchy is deposed. On December 30, 1947 the country is proclaimed the People's republic, and on August 21, 1965 — the Socialist republic. SRR — the participant of the Warsaw Treaty Organization, the member of SEV.
The supreme body of the government and legislature of SRR — the Grand National Assembly, a cut elects the State Council and the head of state — the President of SRR, the chairman of the State Council. The supreme executive and administrative organ — Council of ministers.
For years of socialist construction R. turned into the country with versatily developed industry, releases edges products in 50 times more, than in the period of the bourgeois and landowner mode, the progressing, cooperated agriculture, with considerable achievements in all spheres of activity. In the course of industrialization the industries intensively developed, to-rye provide a scientific and technological revolution in the national economy: mechanical engineering, power industry, chemical industry. With technical assistance of the USSR in Romania the St. 100 enterprises in the leading industries were constructed, on to-rykh a significant amount of hire, mineral fertilizers and other products is made apprx. Va of the developed electric power, coke, steel pipes. Deep transformations are carried out in agriculture. In 1981 14% of page - x. the areas processed the state pages - x. the enterprises, 60% — page - x. production cooperatives. In 1980 the national income, in comparison with 1950, increased by 15 times. SRR participates in the comprehensive program of socialist economic integration, apprx. 50% of a foreign trade turnover it is the share of the socialist countries, 1/@ part of a goods turnover — on a share of the USSR (1980), to-ry delivers the complete equipment for the plant of synthetic rubber and other enterprises of power, metallurgical and chemical industry.
SRR constantly participates in work of meetings of Ministers of Health of the socialist countries. the 2nd (1957) and 12th (1971) meetings were held in Bucharest.
Natural movement of the population. 88,1% of the population of the country — Romanians, 7,9% — Hungarians, 1,6% — Germans and 2,4% — other nationalities. In the cities 49,6% of inhabitants, and live in rural districts — 50,4%. Average population density: 94,3 zhit. on sq.km (1981). Demographic indicators (tab. 1) in 20 years are characterized by stabilization of birth rate and general mortality. Child mortality for this period decreased more than twice. Average life expectancy reached 69,8 years (1978) in comparison with 42 years (1932).
Incidence. In structure of incidence, as well as in the majority of other European countries, diseases of cardiovascular system, a respiratory organs and malignant new growths prevail. The main causes of death in 1976 were: diseases of the blood circulatory system (510,2 on 100 000 population), diseases of a respiratory organs (148,3), malignant new growths (131,3) and accidents (58,9). Among inf. diseases in 1977 on 100 000 zhit. it was registered: measles — 573,7, a viral hepatitis — 264,8, dysentery — 108,5, scarlet fever — 103, tuberculosis (fresh cases) — 73,4, whooping cough — 62,2, syphilis (fresh cases) — 13,6, a spotted fever — 1,11.
As a result of implementation of a complex of actions malaria was liquidated and incidence of diphtheria, poliomyelitis (e.g., in 1977 there were no cases of them), a typhoid, tetanus is considerably reduced, decrease in number of TB patients and veins is noted. diseases.
Long-term programs for fight against cardiovascular and oncological diseases, for mental health care are developed for further strengthening of the state of health of the population.
Organization of health care. The health care in Romania has the state character. The right of the population for protection of his health is guaranteed by the Constitution and the Law of 1978; rendering the general, public and free medical help is provided and the priority is given to prevention. Work to lay down. - the prof. of institutions is based on the principle of an uchastko-vost at wide use of scientific achievements, participation of the population in health protection and in holding actions for health care. The main objectives and the directions in development of health protection are defined by the Program and decisions of congresses of the Romanian Communist Party.
Responsibility for all types of activity in the field of health care, including preparation of medical shots and research, is assigned to Min-in of health care. Advisory body is the Supreme sanitary council subordinated to the Supreme Council of economic and social development. He develops the general directives and defines the main objectives in the field of health protection of the people.
In counties and a municipium of Bucharest the managements of health care submitting to at the same time executive committee of National council of the county and Min-vu of health care and district sanitary councils function. In communes and villages National councils and their executive bureaus know questions of health care.
Main types of medical institutions in R. are:-tsy with policlinic, territorial and industrial medical clinics, out-patient clinics, and also sanepidstantion, stations of ambulance, the centers of collecting and conservation of blood, sanatoria and dispensaries, pharmaceutical institutions, etc.
Stationary medical aid. In R. the following types of hospitals function: rural, city, district and clinical. The structure of city BCs includes departments of therapy, surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics. In district, besides, departments of traumatology and orthopedics, anesthesiology and an intensive care, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, etc. would function. In the large cities and the university centers would function clinical, having a wide range of specialized departments and services, including departments of cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, urology, etc. Besides, psychiatric clinics,-tsy plastic surgery, nurseries-tsy,-tsy for recovering etc. function.
Data on growth of bed fund and security with beds of the population of R. are presented in tab. 2.
The out-patient and polyclinic help to the population of SRR is provided by network of out-patient clinics, clinics and policlinics for adults and separately for children.
In 1978 in the country there were 449 policlinics with 4800 offices of vra-whose-specialists. In rural districts in each commune there is an out-patient clinic headed by the doctor. Their number by 1978 reached 5715 (2406 in 1950). The number of the general practitioners providing primary health care by the adult and to children by 1978 reached 10 415. In the cities 1 doctor is necessary on 603 zhit., in the village — on 1 468 zhit. In 1977 on 1 zhit. in the city 11,75 visits to the doctor, in the village — 5,81 were necessary. By the end of the 70th in SRR began to create the centers of health, in to-rykh together with the general practitioner the pediatrician and the dentist work.
Protection of motherhood and childhood. The legislation provided economic, social and medical actions for stimulation of birth rate, financial support to large families and on health protection of mothers and children. Health protection of the working pregnant women, the paid maternity leave for 112 days, child allowances, the shortened working hours for the mothers who are nursing or having the weakened children, the paid issue to mothers on care of children of younger age, providing to mothers having children to 6-year age the shortened working hours, etc. is provided. The network of a children's day nursery, gardens, children's homes extends. Growth of number of a children's day nursery, numbers of places in them, and also the sums of welfare payments in 1965 — 1980 are presented in tab. 3.
Pharmaceutical business is under authority of the Main directorate of pharmaceutical institutions, edges functions at Min-ve of health care of SRR, and for the organization of supply with pharmaceuticals and medical equipment the Master pharmaceutical control having pharmaceutical warehouses is organized. In counties there are pharmaceutical managements.
The enterprises chemical - pharm. the industries issue St. 1300 names of pharmaceuticals and almost completely satisfy needs of the country. Nek-ry drugs are exported, including in the USSR.
Hospital attendants about-e pidemiolo-gichesky service. The management and control for a dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic activity the Central state sanitary inspectorate of Min-va of health care run by the chief health inspector carries out. SES were created in 1951 and replaced district a dignity. - a gigabyte. laboratories. SES are organized within district managements of health care and carry out functions of control of observance a dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic norms; researches of the environmental factors influencing health of the population; selection for the analysis of samples of air, waters, the soil and food stuffs; management and control of all dignity. - a gigabyte. and the anti-epidemic activity which is carried out by district bodies of health care. SES carry out also tasks a dignity. inspections: resolve issues of delivery a dignity. permissions for functioning of economic and cultural and social objects, etc.
Enter into structure of SES a dignity. - a gigabyte., epidemiological, microbiological, dignity. - chemical and sanitary and toxicological laboratories, laboratory on occupational health. Activity of SES is coordinated territorial in-you hygiene and health care, to-rye carry out nauchnoissledovatelsky work, carry out specialized functions (examination and control of the objects which are under their straight vision).
Resorts. The river is rich with natural medical resources. In the country there is a St. 2 thousand various on physical. - to chemical structure of mineral springs, dozens of mud lakes, magnificent beaches on the coast of the Black Sea, mountain resorts in the Carpathians. Function apprx. 80 balneological and 100 mountain resorts and medical areas. The largest balneological resorts with carbonic mineral waters are Borsek (see), Vuziash, Bae-le-Felix, Vatra-Dorney, Tetpnad; with hydrogen-sulfide waters and salty thermal lakes — «helioterms» — Beile-Erkulane (see), Beile-Govora, Sovata (see). The most important drinking balneological resorts are Kelimeneshti (see), Beile-Oleneshti, Slenik-Moldova (see), Syndzhorz-Bae; balneogryazevy — Amara, Bazna, Victoria, Tekirkchyol; climatic seaside — Mamaya (see), Eforiya (see); mountain — Eushte-ni, Sinai (see), etc. (see the card). In them annually there undergo complex treatment more than half a million persons. The direction on balneological treatment is made on the basis of medical recommendations by General trade union association, Min-vom of work, the National union of production pages - x. cooperatives, tourist bureau for youth, district tourist departments and other public institutions.
Health care workforce. In 1980 in SRR there were 39 800 doctors (including apprx. 7000 dentists), St. 6450 druggists and more than 133 900 average medics. It is the share of 1 doctor 677 zhit., on 1 dentist — 3172 zhit., on 1 druggist — 3447 zhit. and on 1 average medic — 168 zhit. 3,5 average medics are the share of each doctor.
Medical education. In SRR there are 6 medico-pharmaceutical university centers (Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Yassa, Tyrgu-Muresh, Timishoara and Craiova) with 20 f-tami, from to-rykh the 6th the general medicine, the 5th pediatrics, the 5th stomatology and the 4th pharmacy. Duration of university medical education — 6 years on f-takh the general medicine and pediatrics and 5 years — stomatology and pharmacy.
Training of paramedical staff is carried out in 29 four-year-old medical - a dignity. the lyceums accepting graduates of 8-year comprehensive schools. Graduates of lyceums can get to independent work after completion of study and 12-month educational practice.
Specialization of doctors and druggists is carried out through the internship including passing of a one-year specialized course at medical and pharm. f-takh and 2 — 4-year practice in university the wedge,-tsakh or in the district methodological centers also comes to an end with the testing certification in the specialty organized by the Ministry of Health.
Improvement of specialists with the higher medical education is carried out on the basis of individual programs, training programs under the leadership of the senior specialist, by means of advanced training courses, training with receiving special grants abroad, doctoral studies, etc. Coordination of this work within Min-va of health care 2 centers of improvement of vocational training, district and university conduct a wedge,-tsy at the rate of what each medic shall undergo improvement once in 5 years. Annually functions apprx. 200 cycles of improvement, lasting 1 — 1,5 month.
Medical science. Coordinates the medicobiological researches Academy of Medical Sciences SRR, founded in 1969. In R. 27 medico-pharmaceutical scientific research institutes, among to-rykh Ying t of microbiology, parasitology and immunology of I. Kantakuzino, in-you hygiene and health care in Bucharest, Yassakh, in Kluzhe-Napok and Timishoare, Endocrinological in-t of K. Parkhon, Ying t of tuberculosis, Ying t of genetics, immunology and a morfopatologiya of V. Babesh, National in-t of gerontology and geriatrics, Neurological and psychiatric in-t, Virologic in-t of Sh. Nikolau, Ying t on protection of motherhood and the childhood, Oncological in-you in Bucharest and Kluzhe-Napoke, etc. function (see also Research institutes ).
A number of the Romanian scientists, including the pathologist and
the microbiologist V. Babeil, the microbiologist, the epidemiologist and the immunologist Y. Kantakuzino, a malariologist of Chuke (M. Ssha, 1883 — 1969), the virologist Sh. Nikolau, the researcher in the field of hygiene and health care Felix (J. F. Felix, 1832 — 1905), the neuropathologist Mr. Mari-nesku, Yonesku's surgeons achieved the international recognition (Th. Ionescu, 1860 — 1926), to Zhian (A. Jianu, 1881 — 1962), N. Hortolomey, etc. Among the Romanian therapists fame was gained by D. Daniyelopolu, the neurologist, the psychiatrist and the endocrinologist K. Parkhon, etc.
In SRR also 26 specialized sections having branches in Bucharest and in 40 counties of the country work 33 scientific medical about-va. Total number of these members about-in — 120 thousand doctors, druggists and average medical workers.
In Romania there are 22 medical magazines in Romanian and 6 in foreign languages the circulation of St. 60 thousand pieces. The Munchitorul Is a Hospital Attendant weekly is Min-va body of health care and Committee of Trade union association of workers a dignity. institutions.
Table 1. The NATURAL MOVEMENT of the POPULATION of ROMANIA for 1960 — 1979 (on 1000 people)
GROWTH of BED FUND AND SECURITY with BEDS of the POPULATION of ROMANIA in 1965 — 1980.
The Table 3 GROWTH of NUMBER of the CHILDREN'S DAY NURSERY,
NUMBERS of PLACES IN THEM, the TOTAL AMOUNT of WELFARE PAYMENTS FOR CHILDREN IN ROMANIA in 1965 — 1980.
Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world, 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 326, Geneva, WHO, 1981.
Menesku (Ion) of Serdzhiu.