From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ROKITANSKY Karl (Roldtansky Karl, 1804 — 1878) — the Austrian pathologist, the Czech on a nationality, the member Vienna (1848) and the Parisian (1870) academies of Sciences.


Got a medical education in the Prague and Vienna high fur boots. Since 1827 the assistant, with 1834 extraordinary, and from 1844 to 1875 ordinary professor patol. anatomy Vienna un-that. In 1869 it is elected the president of the Vienna academy of Sciences.

The main work of K. Rokitansky is the three-volume «Guide to pathological anatomy» (1842 — 1846). It sustained three editions and was translated into the English and Russian languages. The kliniko-anatomic analysis more than 20 000 section observations was the basis for the management. R. Virkhov called K. Rokitansky Linney pathological anatomy. Besides, it published more than 30 articles devoted to various disease processes (to a perforation of the ulcer of a stomach, infringement and narrowing of guts, tumors, malformations, spontaneous ruptures of an aorta, etc.).

K. Rokitansky organized the Europe's first independent department patol. anatomy in Vienna un-those (1844), were created by one of the largest pathoanatomical museums. It laid the foundation descriptive patol. anatomy, closely connected about a wedge, practice, gave pathoanatomical justification, extremely valuable to the time, a wedge, manifestations of a number of diseases. K. Rokitaneky considered that a task patol. anatomy studying patol is. changes not only on a corpse, but also during lifetime of the patient, and also in an experiment. He paid much attention to communication patol. anatomy with chemistry and physiology.

In the field of the theory K. Rokitaneky adhered to the concept humoral pathology (see), considering that changes of chemical structure of a blood plasma, the wrong mixing of the components which are its part are the cornerstone of all diseases: normal «kraza» is replaced during a disease of «dyscrasias». On its representations the wrong chemical structure of a blood plasma causes adjournment in these or those sites of an organism of unstructured educations — blastemas, from to-rykh then arise various patol. products. K. Rokitansky allocated several types of dyscrasias (fibrinous, croupous and fibrinous, typhus, tubercular, cancer, etc.), to-rye cause emergence of this or that blastema. Proceeding from the concept of dyscrasias, he considered local changes as displays of the general disease. K. Rokitansky's doctrine about kraza and dyscrasias, inherently speculative, was forced out in the middle of 19 century by cellular pathology of R. Virkhov. At the same time provisions K. Rokitansky about a disease as general reaction of an organism, about value of humoral factors in a pathogeny of diseases did not lose the value and now. In honor of K. Rokitansky retractions of a mucous membrane of a gall bladder were called (Rokitansky — Ashoffa a sine), an acute fatty hepatatrophia (Rokitansky's disease), an amyloidosis (a grease disease of Rokitansky), including an amyloidosis of kidneys (Rokitansky's kidney), and also the rule of thumb, according to Krom at patients with a mitral stenosis is practically not observed a pulmonary tuberculosis (Rokitansky's «law»).

K. Rokitaneky was visible public and the politician of the time. Many years he was a president Vienna about-va doctors and Vienna anthropological about-va, was the deputy of parliament. Its performances about education reform are known, in particular he suggested to separate school from church.

Works: Handbuch der speciellen pathologischen Anatomie, Bd 1 — 3, Wien, 1842 — 1846 (Russian lane, M., 1844 — 1849); Die Solidarity alles Thierlebens, Wien, 1869; Die Defecte der Scheidewande des Herzens, Wien, 1875.

Bibliography: Vail S. S. Humoral pathology of Rokitansky (To his 100 anniversary of «The management of pathological anatomy»), Owls. doctor, Saturday., century 1, page 32, 1946; he, Karl Rokitaneky is an outstanding pathologist (To the 175 anniversary since birth), Arkh. patol., t. 41, No. 5, page 82, 1979; Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Arzte, hrsg. v. A. Hirsch, Bd 4, S. 855, B. — Wien, 1932.

V. V. Serov.