ROENTGENOSCOPY [rentgeno-(on a name B. X-ray) + Greek skopeo to consider, investigate; synonym x-ray raying] — the method of X-ray inspection based on obtaining the x-ray image on the fluorescent screen, the screen of the electron-optical converter or the television screen.
The river is one of the main general methods X-ray inspection (see). It began to be applied at the earliest stages of development radiologies (see), soon after opening x-ray emission (see). R.'s technique is simple, it can be applied in any conditions where there is a X-ray diagnostic device (see. X-ray apparatus ). The ruble allows to investigate moving bodies in the course of their functioning — the respiratory movements of a diaphragm, reduction of heart. River in combination with use radiopaque substances (see) allows to investigate a peristaltics of a gullet, stomach, intestines.
Thanks to an opportunity to change during the research position of a body of the patient concerning a bunch of x-ray emission, R. allows to define interposition of anatomical structures, localization and a smeshchayemost patol. educations (see. Polyposition research ).
Using the fluorescent screen treat R.'s shortcomings: low brightness and picture contrast and as a result of it are need of dark adaptation of the doctor, lower resolving power unlike X-ray analysis (see), impossibility to objectively document results of a research.
Use of the electron-optical converter, in particular X-ray television raying (see. Television in medicine ), considerably facilitates R., does not demand dark adaptation, is followed by lower beam load of the patient and personnel, provides the best distinguishing of details of the image is considerable. The X-ray television allows to document also the roentgenoscopic image by means of the video magnetic record.
Rubles apply usually in combination with a X-ray analysis. Rentgenol. the research can begin with R., character patol allows to define edges previously. changes and the best projections for their studying then the X-ray analysis both in standard, and in atypical, established during R. is made, projections (see. X-ray inspection ).
In other cases of R. carry out after the analysis of roentgenograms for identification of functional signs, to-rye cannot be reflected in a picture, napr, paradoxic movement diaphragms (see), Goltsknekht's symptom — Jacobson (see. Goltsknekhta — Jacobson a symptom ).
Under R.'s control carry out many diagnostic and medical manipulations, e.g. catheterization of bronchial tubes.
Rubles by means of the fluorescent screen will see off in the darkened office since brightness of a luminescence of the screen is small. Full dark adaptation of sight of the radiologist requires stay in the darkened room not less than 15 — 20 min., and after stay on bright to light — up to 30 min. R. without sufficient dark adaptation is inadmissible since it does not provide necessary distinguishing of details on the screen. Rubles using the electron-optical converter will see off on light.
The radiologist accommodates in front of the screen, behind a small protective screen and uses during raying protective gloves and an apron from the leaded rubber. Duration of radiation of the patient at R. shall be the shortest, napr, at a research of bodies of a thorax does not exceed 2 — 4 min., a stomach — on average 5 — 6 min. For control of time of a research in modern X-ray apparatus there is alarm watch.
Decrease in radiation of the patient during R. is reached by the maximum shortening of duration of raying, diaphragming and filtering of a bunch of x-ray emission, use of the electron-optical converter.
The data obtained during R. are fixed by the doctor in the form of the protocol of a research.
Bibliography: Lindenbraten L. D. and Naumov L. B. Methods of X-ray inspection of bodies and systems of the person, Tashkent, 1976; The Technique and the equipment of X-ray inspection, under the editorship of I. G. Lagunova, M., 1969; Rabkin I. X. and Ermakov N. P. Electron-optical strengthening, X-ray television, X-ray cinematography, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Tikhonov K. B. Equipment of X-ray inspection, L., 1978; Maleev N., etc. Sjvremenna of the technician and a method on issledva - not in a rentgenologiyat, Sofia, 1974; Lehr-buch der Rontgendiagnostik, hrsg. v. H. R. Schinz u. a., Bd 1, Stuttgart, 1965.
V. V. Kitayev.