From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RHINOVIRUSES (Rhinovirus, singular; Greek rhis, rhinos a nose + viruses) — a sort of viruses this. Picornaviridae causing easily proceeding acute respiratory diseases in the person and animals.

The diseases caused by R. call infectious cold (in foreign literature — common cold). The virus etiology of these diseases is proved Cruz (W. Kruse, 1914) and Foster (G. Foster, 1916). In 1953 K. Andrews allocated a virus strain of DG in explants of a lung from an embryo of the person. The virus did not cause cytopathic effect, but infectivity of cultural liquid remained during 10 passages. In 1960 Mr. D. Tyrrell with sotr. offered a technique of cultivation of the activator with development of cytopathic effect that allowed to allocate group of viruses, edges in 1961 according to K. Andrews's proposal received a generic name «rhinoviruses». Distinguish 114 serotypes of rhinoviruses of the person, 2 serotypes of rhinoviruses of cattle, and also 2 serotypes of rhinoviruses of horses.

R. extend in the airborne way. They can be transmitted also through the infected hands, with to-rykh get on a conjunctiva of eyes or a mucous membrane of a nose. Rubles are widespread everywhere and strike people of all age groups at all seasons of the year, but is more often in the fall. In Moscow among adults the rinovirusny infection in various years decided on acute respiratory diseases at 10 — 28,5% inspected. Despite simultaneous circulation among people of a set of serotypes of R. the wide spread occurance and a long persistention are inherent only to their certain representatives.

Rubles of the person are causative agents of easily proceeding acute respiratory diseases which are followed by cold (the expressed rhinorrhea). Low temperature, a pharyngalgia, dry cough are possible (see. Respiratory viral diseases , Rinovirusnaya disease ). It is proved etiol. R.'s role at hron. diseases of ENT organs, exacerbations of chronic pneumonia (see. Pneumonia ), chronic bronchitis (see) and bronchial asthma (see).

Fig. 1. Diffraction pattern of virions of a rhinovirus of the 17th type (strain 33342); negative contrasting; x 380 000.

Rhinoviruses — the RNA-containing viruses with not fragmented genome, diameter of virion of 22 — 30 nanometers (fig. 1). The genome is put into an ikosaedrichesky capsid, to-ry is constructed of 60 subunits. Rubles are steady against solvents of lipids, is quickly inactivated at low pH values (3 — 5). Virionny RNA is broadcast in the infected cell with formation of a uniform polypeptide chain, further «is cut» edge by proteases with formation of functional virusospetsifichesky proteins. R.'s replication comes to the end in 10 — 14 hour. In a human body of R. breed preferential in a mucous membrane of a nose where collect in a large number. Typical representatives of a sort it is considered to be IB viruses (a strain B 632) and type 2 (HgP). Pier. weight (weight) of virion 8,4 X 10 6 , RNA — 2,2 — 2,8 X 10 6 D. Coefficient of sedimentation of virions of 150 — 165 S. Floating density in chloride of caesium of 1.39 — 1.41 g/cm 3 . Rhinoviruses quickly (within 15 min.) are inactivated at t ° 56 °, however are rather stable at t ° 50 °; are slowly inactivated at t ° 4 ° and are stable at t ° — 70 °. The best method of preservation of R. is lyophilic drying.

Proteins of a capsid of R. are presented by four polypeptides — VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4 — with a molecular weight (for the IA viruses) respectively 35 X 10 3 , 30 X 10 3 , 25 X 10 3 and 8 X 10 3 D. Each of 60 subunits of a capsid contains on one molecule of all polypeptides. Molecules of protein are organized in such a way that VP1 polypeptide is turned to an outer surface of a capsid, and VP4 polypeptide — to internal, VP2 polypeptide at a virus of 2 type is located more superficially.

Rubles possess the strict tipospetsifichnost revealed in a neutralization test. The antigenic community is found only in viruses of types 29 and 44. Antigenicity of native virions is connected with outside determinants (D-determinant), to-rye include the sites interacting with neutralized antibodies. The Kislotolabilnost — distinctive property P. At oxidation inf. virions turn in noninfectious And - and V-particles (the first are deprived of VP4 polypeptide, the second — RNA), occur big restructurings of virion, location of the D-reacting determinants changes and the S-reacting determinants come to light, there is a transition from D-to S-antigenicity. Unlike inf. virions A - and the V-particle are shown expressed immunol. the heterocommunication found in RSK and immunodiffusion.

Rubles of the person are cultivated in cultures of cells of a human origin, napr, kidneys of an embryo of the person, lungs, culture of diploid fibroblasts of the person, nek-ry R. — in cells of kidneys of monkeys. Nek-ry lines of cells of the person (such as M-HeLa) are suitable for receiving pools of the high credits adapted in laboratory of strains of River. The rhinoviruses which are not causing cytopathic effect in culture of cells find by method of a heterological interference with the hemagglutinating ECHO 11 virus.

Optimal conditions for cultivation of rhinoviruses: pH of the environment 6,8 — 7,3, t°33 °, the increased aeration and presence at the environment of 30 mmol of magnesium chloride (see. Cultivation of viruses ).

Fig. 2. Culture of cells of HeLa in 3 days after infection with the rhinovirus allocated from the patient: the centers, typical for rhinoviruses, of the struck cells (it is specified by an arrow); x 80.

Feature of cytopathic effect of R. consists in emergence of a degeneration of culture of cells of focal type p polymorphism of the degenerated cells (fig. 2). At a lab. to diagnosis the virologic method of allocation of R. on culture of cells is most perspective, also detection of antigen in the infected cells by method of an immunofluorescence by means of a set of immune serums to the known serological types P is recommended. For R.'s typing carry out a neutralization test on culture of cells by means of immune serums to reference types of viruses. Immune serums before the use it is necessary to exhaust powder of a liver or a suspension of normal cells. A reliable method of serological diagnosis is the neutralization test with pair blood sera of patients. R.'s identification includes definition of patrimonial accessory (the nature of cytopathic changes in culture, a kislotolabilnost, ether resistance, stability to inhibitors of reproduction of DNK-so-derzhashchikh viruses) and serological type P. (see. Virologic researches , Serological researches ).

Under natural conditions a number of owners is limited by one look. The ruble of the person can infect a chimpanzee.

Vaccines against a rinovirusny infection are not developed. Antirinovirusny drugs, effective in clinic, are not found.

Bibliography: Dreyzin R. S. Viruses in an etiology of diseases of upper respiratory tracts, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 2, page 8, 1975, bibliogr.; Dreyzin R. S. and d river. Development of optimal conditions for allocation of rhinoviruses, Vopr. vi-rusol., JVft 2, page 177, 1975, bibliogr.; Dreyzin R. S., etc. About a pathogeny of a rinovirusny infection, in the same place, No. 6, page 716, 1977, bibliogr.; Dreyzin R. S., etc. To a question of spread of rhinoviruses to the USSR and in ChSSR and their role in pathology, Zhurn. gigabyte., epid., mikr. and immun., t. 23, No 2, page 8, 1979, bibliogr.; Respiratory viral and enteroviral infections at children, under the editorship of S. D. Nosov and V. D. Sable, page 214, M., 1971; Douglas R. G. Comparative diagnosis of picornavirus (enterovirus and rhinovirus) infections, in book: Comparative diagnosis of viral diseases, ed. by E. Kurstak a. Ch. Kurstak, v. 1, pt A, p. 343, N. Y. a. o., 1977; G w a 1 t-n e at J. M. Rhinoviruses, Yale J. Biol. Med., v. 48, p. 17, 1975; Ham re D. Rhinoviruses, Basel — N. Y., 1968, bibliogr.; Tyrrell D. A. Rhinoviruses, in book: Virology monographs, ed. by S. Gard a. o., v. 2, p. 67, Wien — N. Y., 1968.

P. S. Dreyzin.