From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RHINOLITH (Greek rhis, rhinos a nose + lithos a stone) — a nasal stone. Most often are the reason of education of R. foreign bodys (see), to-rye at long stay in a nasal cavity become covered with the limy and phosphatic salts of calcium and magnesium which dropped out of nasal slime. R. is more rare happen professional character (e.g., at workers of cement production).

R. rather seldom meet, and is more often at children. Duration of stay of R. in a nasal cavity is various. The case when R. was in a nasal cavity of 35 years is described.

On chemical structure of R. contains up to 10 — 15% of organic compounds. In a form P. are various: round, oblong, with a pulled surface and acute ledges. R.'s most of the small sizes, but meet and large R. Ves makes them from 1 to 5 g. As a rule, R. promote infection of a nasal cavity.

Rubles can cause the long unilateral complicated nasal breath, purulent discharges are noted, a headache, repeated not plentiful bleedings, feeling of pressure in the corresponding half of the face, dacryagogue is frequent with an ichorous smell. Big R. cause deformation of a nose. Rinoskopicheski is defined by puffiness of a mucous membrane of nasal sinks and a nasal partition, granulation, purulent crusts; are visible to R.'s thicket in the general nasal course, is more rare on average and back departments of a nose.

Possible complications — chronic rhinitis (see), nasal bleeding (see), antritis (see), etmoidit (see), frontal sinusitis (see), perforation of a nasal partition, otitis (see).

The diagnosis is established taking into account yielded the anamnesis, results front, average and back rinoskopiya (see); use also sounding, X-ray analysis (see), including with a contrast agent, tomography (see). The differential diagnosis is carried out with tumors (see. Nose ), infectious granulomas (see. Granuloma ), ozena (see), diphtheria (see).

Delete R. with hooks, it is preferential through front department of a nose, more rare quickly under anesthetic.

Forecast favorable.

Bibliography: Dyachuk V. V. Two cases of a rhinolith at children, Zhurn. ushn., nose. and throats, Bol., No. 4, page 104, 1976; Korsakov I. V. To a question of rhinoliths, Vestn. rinolyaringo-otologist., No. 6, page 709, 1927; Levashov M. M. A rare foreign body (pencil) from twenty summer stay in a nasal cavity, Zhurn. ushn., nose. and throats, Bol., No. 6, page 66, 1961; Nikolaev M. P. and Kovalenko E. E. Sluchay of a rhinolith of the big sizes, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 4, page 82, 1976; III l and e S. P N. Asymptomatic stay of a foreign body in a nasal cavity within 35 years, Zhurn. ushn., nose. and throats, Bol., No. 4, page 78, 1980.

I. L. Kruchinina.