From Big Medical Encyclopedia

«Liberation movement in Russia — V. I. Lenin wrote — passed three main a stage, to respectively three main classes of the Russian society, imposing the to pedat on the movement: 1) the period is noble, approximately from 1825 to 1861; 2) raznochinsky or bourgeois-democratic, approximately from 1861 to 1895; 3) proletarian, since 1895 till present» (V. I. Lenin, Pauly. SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 25, page 93). In the article «Herzen's Memories» Vladimir Ilyich wrote: «... we see clearly three generations, three classes operating in the Russian revolution» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 21, page 261). Among all three generations of participants of revolutionary movement in Russia there were physicians.

Among Decembrists — representatives of the first, «noble», a stage of liberation movement — there were headquarters doctor at the main apartment of the 2nd (Southern) army F. B. Wolf, active member of «The southern society», colleague of II. I. Pestelya. He participated in drawing up that part of the «Russian truth» written by P. I. Pestel, edges concerned health protection of the people and where proposals of Decembrists on the organization of medical aid were stated to the country population. The device in each volost of the educational house with department for women in childbirth was provided, in particular. The medical officer O. P. Bogorodsky was a member of «The union of prosperity».

In 20 — the 50th years physicians made 19 century the St. 13% of total number of the persons involved for political motives in the investigation and prosecuted or which underwent prosecution administratively. Without participation of physicians as defendants there did not take place almost any considerable political process of that time.

Physicians began to take a bigger part in revolutionary movement at a bourgeois-democratic stage of liberating fight when «commoners» made most of the intellectuals and the studying youth. V. I. Lenin called students «the most sympathetic part of the intellectuals» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 7, page 343). The choice by democratically spirited youth of a medical profession was not accidental; it gave the chance to conduct revolutionary work among general population, and first of all the peasantry.

Among physicians there were eminent persons of revolutionary populism: G. P. Isaev, O. V. Aptekman, P. I. Dyakonov, N. I. Kibalchich, Lyudmila Volkenstein, Sofya Perovskaya, etc. Having become doctors, many continued to conduct revolutionary promotion, were exposed to police prosecutions. Practically there was no event in revolutionary life of Russia 60 — the 90th of the last century, in Krom physicians students, doctors, the paramedic, the midwife would not take active part. In the second half of the 60th and in the 70th for political motives 976 physicians were involved in the investigation, sentences were pronounced concerning 610 people; in the 80th for participation in revolutionary movement 817 physicians underwent prosecution. The doctor P. I. Bokov, the member about-va «The earth and a will», the friend and N. G. Chernyshevsky's follower took part in revolutionary movement of this period; he was arrested for distribution of the Russia's first illegal printing edition to Velikorusa (1861, 1863). Students of Medicochirurgical academy P. Benevolensky, V. Hokhryakov in 1863 were found «guilty of malicious distribution of shocking appeals with the purpose to excite to disobedience of the Supreme power»; both underwent a severe penalty — to a hard labor and «the eternal settlement» in Siberia. Closely cooperated with A. I. Herzen in promotion of the revolutionary ideas doctors populists P. L. Pikulin forwarding from London to Russia the Pole star magazine and N. A. Belogolovy participating in the Bells edition. Since student's years the prominent scientist-clinical physician V. A. Manassein took part in the narodnichesky movement for what he was exposed from the imperial authorities to prosecutions more than once. The medical student of B was banished from Kiev to the Perm province for revolutionary activity. O. Portugalov who became later the famous doctor-publicist. Participated in the narodovolchesky movement and And. N. Bach, afterwards prominent Soviet scientific biochemist.

Female-medichki, among them were active revolutionaries - on - springs: V. N. Figner (former student of University of Zurich), feldsheritsa S. L. Perovskaya. The revolutionary circle created by S. L. Perovska developed into the large narodnichesky organization, on business a cut was involved in inquiry apprx. 4 thousand people; among them on trial of «193rd» (1877 — 1878) 17 listeners of the St. Petersburg female medical courses were condemned.

By the beginning of the third, proletarian, a stage of liberation movement in Russia the number of medical workers in the country, according to a census of 1897, exceeded 68 thousand. On a social origin they belonged preferential to commoners. Average medical workers were natives of peasants and petty bourgeoises. Communicating daily with the people, seeing its needs and diseases, constantly feeling in the professional and public work (see. Public medicine ) defects of an imperial system, the advanced part of the medical intellectuals at the end of 19 and the beginning of 20 centuries came to understanding of need of basic social changes, its most advanced part apprehended the ideas of Marxism.

The end of 19 century was marked in the Russian revolutionary movement by a wide exit to political arena of the proletariat and his revolutionary organization, first of all the Lenin St. Petersburg «Union of fight for release of working class». Among members of this organization was many doctors, medical students and paramedics — N. A. A lekseev, N. A. Bogoraz, B. P. Krasnukh, H. N. Plaksin, K. M. Takhtarev, V. N. Katin-Yartsev, V. F. Kozhevnikova, O. B. Le-peshinskaya, M. Ya. Sushchinsky, etc. 3 physicians entered into the management of the Kiev «Union of fight for release of working class»: P. L. Tu-chapsky, N. A. Vigdorchik, B. L. Ey-delman; active part in its activity took I. M. Poles sky, the student V. A. Obukh (afterwards the head of the Soviet health care in Moscow).

In development of the Marxist movement in Russia the significant role was played by physicians — participants of revolutionary movement in Moscow.

A. N. Vinokurov was the head of one of the first Moscow Marxist circles (1892), in to-ry medical students — C entered. I. Mickiewicz, is later N. A. Semashko, D. I. Ulyanov, M. F. Vladimirsky, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Ve-lichkina), etc. Among workers in the fall of 1893 the Marxist group — «six» was created. Physicians A. N. Vinokurov, P. I. Vinokurova and S. I. Mickiewicz entered it (as propagandists). V. I. Lenin gave to S. I. Mickiewicz for printing the first part of the manuscript «What is friends of the people and how they are at war against social democrats?». N. A. Semashko wrote afterwards that this work of Lenin made him the Marxist Leninist forever.

Physicians played an active role in creation of the Marxist organizations and in other cities of Russia: H. N. Ispolatov and E. P. Radin — - in Voronezh, G. D. Leyteyzen (Lindov) and A. N. Vinokurov — in Ekate-rinoslav, M. F. Vladimirsky and A. S. Rose trees — in Nizhny Novgorod, etc. For 1895 — 1899 477 medics underwent prosecution by imperial police, among to-rykh 268 physicians were social democrats. In 1900 — 1907 2076 physicians were involved in the investigation of political motives.

In 1898 in Minsk the I congress of RSDRP which proclaimed creation of the Russian social democratic Labour Party took place. From 9 delegates of a congress three were physicians. In preparation of ideological and theoretical and organizational bases for creation of proletarian party of new type and in the organization of the II congress of RSDRP (1903) Lenin «Spark» had major importance, physicians also took part in the edition and distribution a cut in Russia and abroad (D. I. Ulyanov, V. A. Rada with-3 enjkovich, F. V. Gusarov, V. M. Bronner, O. B. Lepeshinskaya, V. A. Levitsky, M. F. Vladimirsky, M. G. Vecheslov). Among readers of «Spark» was many doctors, paramedics, midwifes, the serving drugstores, etc. At the II congress of RSDRP process of merging of the revolutionary Marxist organizations came to the end — the Bolshevik party was created, its program and the charter are developed.

After the congress a number of local party committees was headed by doctors Bolsheviks: M. F. Vladimirsky (N. Novgorod), D. I. Ulyanov (Kiev), V. A. Obukh, S. I. Mickiewicz (Moscow), etc.

Among the Bolsheviks who were directly involved in the December armed revolt in Moscow (1905) there were physicians E. P. Pervukhin, M. F. Vladimirsky, A. P. Golubkov, etc. Physicians Bolsheviks were active organizers of performances and strikes and in other cities: in St. Petersburg — B. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina), F. V. Gusarov, A. L. Gelfer, G. D. Leyteyzen (Lindov), Yu. A. Men-deleva; in N. Novgoroda — N. A. Semashko, V. P. Lebedev; in Simbirsk — D. I. Ulyanov, S. I. Cher-nomordik, 3. P. Solovyov; in Nikolaev — V. A. Radus-Zenkovich, V. P. Krasnukh; in Latvia — A. Ya. Pri-edkaln and A. M. Kirkhenstein, etc.

The important role in the accruing All-Russian strike of 1905 was played by railroad workers. In Moscow revolutionary work on the Kazan railroad was carried out by E. P. Pervukhin. The doctor A. V. Uzemblo was one of organizers of a strike of railroad workers in Saratov, and then the member of strike committee of the city. In Ukraine the doctor Bolshevik A. V. Lysenko was at the head of strike committee of the Art. of Znamenka, Ya. M. Lyakhovsky, in Voronezh — the doctor of H was a leader of railroad workers of Transbaikalia. N. Ispolatov.

During revolution of 1905 — 1907 bodies of a revolt and revolutionary power — Councils of working deputies were created. Many doctors Bolsheviks were members of Councils. The Moscow Council included M. F. Vladimirsky, in Nikolaev — V. P. A rubella, in Voronezh — I. I. Ginsburg, in Odessa — A. M. Velypteyn. Doctors S. I. Mickiewicz, V. A. Obukh, A. P. Golubkov, P. G. Dauge, V. Ya. Kanel entered into lecturing group at the Moscow committee. Doctors Bolsheviks were included into Councils of deputies and other cities. Under the direction of Councils of working deputies in a number of the cities free medical aid to the population was organized, to lay down. the help to workers (through labor unions), there were labor unions of medics (paramedics, druggists, etc.), a part to-rykh was headed by Bolsheviks. In hospitals of a number of the cities (St. Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk, etc.) electoral managements from representatives of all categories of medical staff were created that promoted democratization of medical business. There were cases when doctors Bolsheviks led not only radical doctors, but also wider circles of physicians, napr, during the periods of rise of revolutionary movement.

V. I. Lenin specified: «Our movement has the whole army, army of workers now... army of the intellectuals who were taking and taking part in the movement..., army of sympathizers... ready to render it thousands of services. And we are faced by a great task: to organize all these armies...» (V. I. Lenin. Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 4, page 436 — 437).

In 1903 left work and most of doctors of the Nizhny Novgorod County, in July, 1905 — territorial doctors and the paramedic of the Balashov County of the Saratov province announced a strike. Collective departure of 18 doctors and 30 paramedics from the Balashov zemstvo in protest at political orders in the country received a big response. «Events in Nizhny Novgorod and Balashov paid general attention to themselves» — V. I. Lenin wrote (Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. And, page 189).

Doctors Bolsheviks aimed to use medical public organizations, in particular Pirogovsky congresses (see), for promotion of antimonarchical views. At the moments of revolutionary upsurge these congresses became a tribune for performances; they involved wide circles of the medical intellectuals in antigovernmental fight. In 1904 the doctors Bolsheviks participating in work of the IX Pirogovsky congress (S. I. Mickiewicz, V. P. A rubella, V. A. Radus-Zenkovich, etc.), having exerted impact on ordinary territorial and city doctors, managed to achieve adoption of acute political resolutions. They also prepared the leaflet address from the St. Petersburg committee of RSDRP «For members of the Pirogovsky congress», in a cut was reported about creation of RSDRP, about the program adopted by party in the field of labor protection, social insurance, national health care; the leaflet urged doctors to be closed with rabochgsh the movement.

The extraordinary Pirogovsky congress on fight against cholera (1905) had the expressed political coloring. It was promoted by activity of doctors-bolynevikov of S. I. Mickiewicz, V. P. Rubellas, I. V. Rusakov, V. A. Obukh, etc. In the draft resolution of a congress offered by S. I. Mickiewicz the requirements close to the RSDRP program at least, including in the field of health protection of workers were stated. The resolution after bitter struggle with her opponents was adopted with small amendments.

2053 physicians, including 95 Bolsheviks participated in the first Russian revolution (50 consisted of them members of committees of RSDRP). In 1905 — 1907 more than 50 Councils of working deputies were created. Among deputies there were 38 medics, 4 of them headed Councils: Ya. M. Sverdlov — in Yekaterinburg, M. F. Vladimirsky — in Moscow, V. P. A rubella — in Nikolaev, A. A. Melnikov — in Krasnoyarsk.

Vracham-bolypevikam it was necessary to struggle with those representatives of the medical intellectuals, to-rye upheld kulturnichesky positions, considering that improvement of health of the people can be reached only as a result of increase in level of its culture, but not in the revolutionary way.

For participation in revolution of 1905 — 1907 hundreds of physicians underwent severe prosecutions. According to the magazine of Pirogovsky society for 1906, 1154 physicians were discharged from office, arrested, sent into exile. Were sentenced to a hard labor and doctors Bolsheviks F. V. Gusarov, F. N. Petrov, S.Yu. Bagotsky, V. A. Radus-Zenkovich, H are sent on the settlement. N. Ispolatov, And. V. Uzem-blo, I. V. Rusakov, A. P. Golubkov, etc. Revolutionary physicians and in exile continued to conduct illegal party work, combining it with medical. Under the guise of reception of patients I. V. Rusakov suited appearances, gave political literature; doctor V. K. Renault was one of organizers of escape of exiled. The paramedic G. K. Ordzhonikidze and Ya. M. Sverdlov living in exile these years — in the past «the pharmaceutical pupil» combined revolutionary activity with medical.

In the years of reaction activity of party groups and committees did not stop. Their work the Bolshevist center led by V. I. Lenin directed from emigration. In Russia the role of the leading party center was carried out by the Russian RSDRP Central Committee bureau, the doctor A. P. Golubkov was the technical secretary to-rogo. In 1908 — 1910 N. A. Semashko was the secretary of the Central Committee Foreign bureau. M. F. Vladimirsky was a member of the committee.

Problems of party in the field of health care gained further development in the resolution adopted by the VI (Prague) All-Russian party conference (1912). N. A. Semashko made on conferences the report on the state insurance of workers. The draft resolution prepared by it was edited by V. I. Lenin and adopted by a conference.

During the period between two revolutions doctors Bolsheviks actively cooperated in a party press (in the newspapers «Pravda», «Zvezda», in the Questions of Insurance magazine, etc.).

Legal congresses were widely used for promotion of the socialist ideas. In work of a congress on fight against alcoholism (1909 — 1910) A. N. Vinokurov and A. Ya. Priyedkaln, participated in work of the I congress of factory doctors (1909) — A. N. Vinokurov, I. S. Weger, B. Ya. Kanel, I.P. Pokrovsky, N. A. Vigdorchik. In the years of revolutionary upsurge (1912 — 1914) doctors Bolsheviks and the advanced doctors strengthened the influence in insurance companies; active part in their work was taken A. N. Vinokurov, by C. I. Chernomordik, A. L. Gelfer, E. P. Pervukhin, N. A. Vigdorchik, M. G. Vecheslov, etc. In the years of World War I hospital cash desks were the most mass, and often only legal organizations of workers.

After the February revolution of 1917 many doctors Bolsheviks were a part of the central and regional party bodies and executive committees of Councils of working and soldier's deputies. And. N. Vinokurov was a member of the Petrograd party committee, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina) — Christmas regional party committee of Petrograd, I. V. Rusakov was a part of the first bureau of RSDRP(b) of the Sokolnichesky district of Moscow, I. S. Weger was elected the chairman of the Moscow provincial Council of working deputies, V. A. Obukh was a part of Executive committee of the Moscow Council, G. N. Kaminsky headed the Tula provincial party committee, and then and a gubispolok. Doctors M. N. Kadyrli and S. M. Efendiyev were members of Executive committee of the Baku city council. In the summer of 1917 Bolsheviks won a large victory in regional thoughts of Moscow and headed them (N. A. Semashko, 3. P. Solovyov, I. V. Rusakov, B. S. Veysbrod, R. M. Azarkh, etc.).

In the ranks of the Bolsheviks who were carrying out at the front work among soldiers and sailors there were physicians E. M. Sklyan-sky, M. S. Kedrov, D. I. Ulyanov, S. G. Roshal, L. V. Gromashev-sky. By preparation and holding the October armed revolt physicians Bolsheviks took active part both in armed struggle, and in the organization of medical aid by the wounded.

After the victory of Great October socialist revolution many physicians (A. N. Vinokurov, F. N. Petrov, M. S. Kedrov, V. A. Radus-Zenkovich, G. N. Kaminsky, E. M. Sklyansky, H. N. Narimanov, S. M. Efendiyev, etc.) were directed by party to the most important sites of party and state construction. Tempered in revolutionary movement of the proletariat, armed with Marxist-Leninist outlook, N. A. Semashko's doctors Bolsheviks, 3. P. Solovyov, A. N. Vinokurov, M. I. Barsukov, A. P. Golubkov, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina), V. A. Obukh, E. P. Pervukhin, I. V. Rusakov, V. P. Lebedeva, etc. were organizers and heads of construction of the first-ever state system of health protection of the people.

See also Communist Party of the Soviet Union , Meditsina .

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I. T. Leonov, E. I. Lotova.