REVERTAZA (synonym: reverse transcriptase, return transcriptase, RNA-dependent, or RNA-directed, DNA polymerase, DNK-nukleotidiltransferaza RNA-dependent; KF 126.96.36.199) — the enzyme catalyzing synthesis of DNA from dezoksinukleozidtrifosfat on a matrix of RNA. In the cells infected retroviruses (see), R. copies virus RNA, turning it into DNA integrating from genomic DNA of a cell.
The river is widely applied to artificial synthesis of DNA, complementary to various RNA of viruses and eukaryotes (KDNK).
The river is found in 1970 at the same time by Baltimore (D. Baltimore) and Temin with Midzutani (H. Temin, S. Mizutani). Is a part of a nukleoproteidny component of onkovirus of birds and mammals, including primacies. Enzyme with properties P. of retroviruses is found in slow viruses (see. Slow viral infections ), in the retrovirus-like particles allocated from milk and a placenta of the person. DNK-polimeraznaya RNA-dependent activity is inherent also to drugs of a DNA polymerase of colibacillus.
As a matrix for the cleared R. synthetic and natural homopolymer and heteropolymeric RNA and DNA can serve. The priming is necessary for initiation (start) of synthesis — complementary to a matrix weed (oligo) - a ribonucleotide or a deoxyribonucleotide with free 3 '-IT - the end. Substrate P., edges activates Mg 2+ and Mn 2+ , dezoksinukleozidtrifosfata are.
The river has both synthetic (DNK-polimeraznoy), and the activity degrading (N-ribonukleaznoy). For an activity unit it is considered to be R.'s number catalyzing inclusion 1 nmol of thymidinemonophosphate in 10 min. in a kislotonerastvorimy product on a matrix weed (And) *олиго (T) 10 in reference conditions of reaction.
For implementation of the scientific program of the Return Transcriptase (Revertaza) project devoted to enzymatic synthesis of genes and their use for studying of the genetic device of animals and viruses the group of scientists of the USSR, GDR and ChSSR is conferred in 1979 the State award USSR.
See also Polymerases .
Bibliography: Gershenzon S. M. Reverse transcription and its value for the general genetics and oncology, Usp. sovr. biol., t. 75, century 3, page 323, 1973, bibliogr.; Kavsan V. M. and Kiselyov L. L. Expansion of opportunities of synthesis of complementary DNA by method of reverse transcription, in the same place, t. 91, century 3, page 323, 1981; Baltimore D. Viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, Nature (bond.), v. 226, p. 1209, 1970; G i 1-b about an E. o. A detailed model of reverse transcription and tests of crucial aspects, Cell, v. 18, p. 93, 1979; Temin H. M. a. Mizutani S. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus, Nature (Lond.), v. 226, p. 1211, 1970.
V. M. Kavsan.