REUNION (Reunion) — «overseas department» of France on the island in the Indian Ocean, in group of the Mascarene Islands to the east of Madagascar. The area is 2,51 thousand km 2 . The population apprx. 490 thousand people (1980). The administrative center — Saint-Denis (105 thousand zhit., 1980). Administrative division — 2 districts. Ofits. language — French.
River — the French colony since 17 century. Since 1946 has ofitsa. status of «overseas department» of France. The administration is headed by the prefect appointed by the fr. government. Local government is the General council, the rights to-rogo are limited. The ruble is presented in parliament of France by three deputies of National assembly and two senators.
The climate is equatorial, with dominance of trade winds. East part of the island where the St. 4000 mm of rainfall a year drop out, is covered with rainforests, zap. a part and internal plateaus — the savanna.
River — the agrarian country with colonial structure of the economy dependent on France. Under a sugarcane — the main standard of farming — occupied 71% of the processed lands. There are 8 sugar plants, to-rye belong to the French monopolies. Raw sugar makes 87% of export in value terms. From 1966 to 1976 at encouragement of the French authorities with R. 45,3 thousand people, preferential youth emigrated. However and in 1979 in whole or in part the unemployed made apprx. 30% of the amateur population.
In the country there live hl. obr. Creoles are descendants of the French, Indian, Malagasy, Arab and other immigrants, and also Blacks. The natural movement of the population in 1980, on ofitsa. to the data provided in editions of WHO (for 1000 the population): birth rate 25,0, general mortality 6,6, natural increase 18,4; child mortality 41 on 1000 live-born. 43% of the population — up to 15 years, 4% — are more senior than 65 years. During the previous period, from 1965 to 1975, also low rate of an increase in population owing to decrease in birth rate (according to WHO data, birth rate decreased with 46,2 in 1966 to 30,2 in 1970) and the increased emigration of the population to France was noted.
The main place in structure of incidence in 1976 was taken by infectious and parasitic diseases, especially a typhoid and paratyphus, an amebiasis, dysentery, inf. hepatitis, leptospirosis, syphilis and gonorrhea. Malaria is almost liquidated.
The structure of the organization of health care is similar that in France (see).
In 1977 on the island there were 11 healthcare institutions on 2642 beds (53,7 on 10 000 population). From them 4-tsy the general type on 1582 beds, including 890 beds for therapeutic patients, 450 for surgical, 162 maternity etc.; besides, 5 rural BCs on 328 beds, 1-tsa for TB patients on 214 beds and 1 psychiatric-tsa on 518 beds. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of R. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad .)
In 1975 in R. 296 doctors (5,9 for 10 000 population), 77 stomatologists, 143 druggists, 77 midwifes, St. 2 thousand nurses, St. 450 assistants to the nurse and other medical staff worked.
Bibliography: Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 316, M., 1980; World health statistics annual 1978, v. 3, p. 12, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Infectious diseases, p. 10, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 31, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual, Vital statistics and causes of death, p. 14, Geneva, 1980.
A. A. Rozov.