RETZIUS Adolphus (Retzius Anders Adolf, 1796 — 1860) — the Swedish anatomist and the anthropologist.
Got a medical education in high fur boots of Lund and Copenhagen. In 1819 protected dokt. thesis. Served as the medical officer. Since 1823 professor Veterinarnogo in-that, and since 1824 departments of anatomy in Carolinian un-those in Stockholm (since 1840 ordinary professor).
The first scientific works of A. Rettsius are devoted to anatomy of fishes, the subsequent his researches — hl. obr. anthropotomy. It showed direct anatomic communication between roots of spinal nerves and a sympathetic trunk (1832); described a structure of a stomach of the person and animals, the mechanism of short circuit of semi-lunar valves, an extrahepatic anastomosis of a portal and lower vena cava; studied a thin structure of a liver by means of an injection technique; went in for anatomy of pelvic bodies. Are called by his name described by it a prashchevidny ligament of a penis (a rettsiusova a sheaf) and pozadilobkovy space (rettsiusovo space). It improved teaching anatomy, founded the museum of normal and pathological anatomy in Stockholm. A. Rettsius is a founder of a scientific kraniometriya. In 1842 he offered the cranial (head) index, allocated the main shapes of a skull (dolikhokranny and brakhikranny) and divided people of the world into 4 groups on a shape of a skull and the person. It possesses also a number of works on ethnic anthropology.
Works: From formen af nordboernes cranier, Stockholm, 1843; tfber das Ligamentum pelvo-prostaticum oder den Apparat, durch welchen die Harnblase, die Prostata und die Harnrohre an den untern Beckenoffnung befestigt sind, Muller’s Arch. Anat. Physiol, wiss. Med., S. 182, 1849; Ethnologische Schriften von Anders Retzius, Stockholm, 1864.
Bibliography: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Arzte, hrsg, v. A. Hirsch, Bd 4, S. 772, B. — Wien, 1932.
V. S. Speransky.