RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM (RES, systema reticulo-endotheliale). According to earlier existing representations understood set of the cells (reticular, endothelial cells, macrophages, etc.) having various origin, having ability to endocytosis and performing protective function as RES.
Thanks to works of outstanding Russian scientists I. I. Mechnikov and A. O. Kowalewski at the end of 19 century it became known that the cells taking foreign material are available for metazoans of various systematic groups. I. I. Mechnikov called these cells phagocytes and carried them to one cellular system. On a basis of wide-ranging comparative and zoological studies I. I. Mechnikov came to the conclusion about protective function of these cells which played a crucial role in development of the theory and practice of medicine. In 1914 Mr.
of Kiyono (To. Kiyono) — the employee L. Ashoffa published the observations about existence in various fabrics and bodies of an organism of the cells capable to accumulate a vital stain a carmine. This criterion also formed the basis of the doctrine of L. Ashoff about reticuloendothelial system, according to Krom of RES in a broad sense includes the cells absorbing vital stains in moderate and large numbers namely: reticular macrophages of a red pulp of a spleen and limf, follicles of peripheral lymphoid bodies (spleens, limf, nodes, peyerovy plaques went. - kish. path), reticular and endothelial cells of sinusoidny capillaries and lymphatic sine of marrow, peripheral lymphoid bodies, adrenal glands and hypophysis, kupferova of a cell of a liver, histiocytes of connecting fabric and monocytes of blood. RES did not include endothelial cells of the majority of vessels and fibroblasts since these cells have very weak ability to accumulation of vital stains.
Ideas of RES developed decades and were fruitfully developed by many scientists of the different countries, including the Russian and Soviet scientists, such as A. A. Maximov, A. A. Pilgrim, H. N. Anichkov, etc. Gradually the term RES entered into scientific literature by morphologists began to designate protective system of an organism and, as a matter of fact, turned into a physiological concept.
In process of obtaining new experimental data and development of data on an origin, a differentiation and function of the fabrics making a basis of RES became clear that from the point of view of morphology and especially hematology and immunology of idea of RES are not specific, indistinct and demand thorough review. So, reticular macrophages, the Crimea the important part in RES was assigned and the set of functions (phagocytosis, basic function, ability to be transformed to various blood cells) was attributed, perform basic function and create a so-called microenvironment for the hemopoietic and lymphoid cells (see. Reticular fabric ); they are carried to cells of fibroblastichesky type (mekhanotsita). There are all bases to consider that ability to endocytosis was mistakenly attributed to endothelial cells circulatory and limf, sine as methods of light microscopy did not allow to distinguish them from the macrophages who had similar topography (e.g., in sinusoidny capillaries of a liver). As it was found out by means of modern methods of a research, endothelial cells morphologically and functionally markedly differ both from reticular macrophages, and from macrophages and represent an independent number of a differentiation. Their main function — transport of substances through walls of capillaries (transcytosis).
Indistinctly formulated morfol. criteria of RES formed the basis for quite fair criticism of the concept of RES (even during its blossoming) from such famous morphologists as A. A. Maximov (1927), A. A. Zavarzin (1945) and Franceschini (P. Franceschini, 1952). The last found more correct use of the term «histiocytic system», considering, it is obvious that related types of cells shall be united in system. A. A. Zavarzin emphasized that to absorption of vital stains cells of all fabrics, including epithelial and nervous therefore the quantitative criterion is insufficient for allocation of RES are capable.
This discussion received the end in 1969 in Leiden at the conference devoted to problems of RES where the new concept was put forward according to a cut the protective function which is earlier attributed to RES along with others, the general for them functions, is carried out by system of cells (macrophages) having homogeny, and also morphological, cytochemical and functional similarity. For designation of this system the term «system of mononuclear phagocytes» was offered. The terms «macrophagic system», «monocytic and macrophagic system» are less often used. In 1973 and 1978 in Leiden the second and third conferences on the problems concerning system of mononuclear phagocytes took place respectively. In 1973 classification, according to a cut macrophages and their progenitors was published in the Bulletin of WHO (monocytes, etc.) are included in system of mononuclear phagocytes.
Thus, ideas of system of mononuclear phagocytes are continuously improved, and the system now given is accepted by most of researchers around the world, and the concept of RES is of at the same time only historical interest (see. System of mononuclear phagocytes ).
Bibliography: I. I. swordsmen. Lectures about comparative pathology of an inflammation, SPb., 1892; about N e, Immunity in infectious diseases, SPb., 1903; Kiyono K. Die vitale Karmin-speicherung, Jena, 1914; Mononuclear phagocytes, ed. by R. van Furth, Oxford — Edinburgh, 1970; Mononuclear phagocytes, In immunity, infection and pathology, ed. by R. van Furth, Oxford a. o., 1975; Mononuclear phagocytes, Functional aspects, ed. by R. van Furth, pt 1 — 2, Hague a. o., 1980.
H. G. Hrushchov, V. I. Starostin.