RESPIRATORY VIRAL DISEASES (Latin respiratio breath) — group of the viral diseases which are characterized by preferential damage of mucous membranes of respiratory tracts.
To number P. of century. carry flu (see), parainfluenza diseases (see), adenoviral diseases (see), respiratory and syncytial infection (see), rinovirusny disease (see), koksaki-viral diseases (see), the diseases caused by coronaviruses (see. Coronaviruses ).
After opening of an influenza virus (1933) there was an opinion on various etiology of primary acute infectious diseases of respiratory tracts. In 1938 Mr. Stewart-Harris (Page H. Stuart-Harris) and A. A. Smorodintsev suggested to divide R. century. on the flu caused by the corresponding viruses and so-called Qatar of upper respiratory tracts of the unknown at that time etiologies. Rowe, Hübner (W. River of Kowe, R. J. Huebner) with sotr. in 1953 allocated the activator called adenovirus from fabric of adenoides. Late use in virusol. allowed to allocate to practice of methods of fabric cultures from respiratory tracts of the person many new viruses — possible activators P. of century.
River of century. are caused by the viruses relating to various families and having the expressed tropism to an epithelium of a mucous membrane of respiratory tracts. A source of an infection at R. century. only the person — the patient or the carrier is. Transfer of a virus from the person to the person happens in preferential airborne way; infection through the infected objects of use is possible (ware, a towel, toys, etc.).
River of century. meet worldwide, is more often in middle latitudes; rises in incidence are noted expressed seasonal (spring, fall) that is promoted by cooling of an organism. Century are susceptible to R. people of all age, especially children. After the postponed disease there is a short-term specific immunity.
River of century. are characterized by the acute beginning with temperature increase, are followed by damage of upper airways; current their usually short-term. Complications are possible — otitis (see), pneumonia (see), meningitis (see), etc.
The clinical diagnosis for group in general does not cause difficulties, but the final diagnosis can be made only by means of laboratory methods of a research: reactions of binding complement (see), reactions of indirect hemagglutination, reaction of braking hemagglutinations (see), an immunofluorescence in direct or indirect modification (see. Immunofluorescence ), at allocation and identification of a virus activator (see. Virologic researches , Identification of viruses ).
For treatments River of century. pathogenetic and symptomatic means are used, at bacterial complications (e.g., at pneumonia) appoint antibiotics.
Forecast usually favorable, however at the complicated forms lethal outcomes are possible.
Prevention consists in systematic wet cleaning and airing of rooms; in child care facilities use of germicidal lamps is recommended (in the absence of children). Increase in nonspecific body resistance — physical culture, sport, walks in the fresh air, a balanced diet, purpose of vitamins according to indications is important. An important measure of the prevention of a disease outbreak is early detection of patients in hostels and child care facilities and their placement to the isolation center. In the apartment of the patient it is necessary to stack in the certain room or to fence off his bed a screen. For the diseased allocate separate ware, a towel, objects of leaving; after the use ware is boiled in 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate. Hospitalize only patients with the heavy and complicated forms of a disease. In maternity homes, children's consultations, policlinics, the personnel would have to use gauze bandages (masks).
Specific prevention is developed only concerning flu.
Bibliography: Influenza viruses and flu, under the editorship of E. D. Kilburn, the lane with English, M., 1978; D I am a h e N to about S. S., With and N I to K. M. and Dyachenko N. S. Pathogenic viruses of the person, page 161, 402, Kiev, 1980; Zlydnikov D. M., Kazantsev A. P. and Starshov P. D. Therapy of viral diseases, JI., 1979; The Guide to infectious diseases, under the editorship of V. I. Pokrovsky and K. M. Loban, page 335, M., 1977; The influenza viruses and influenza, ed. by D. Kilbourne, p. 483, N. Y. — L., 1975.
K. M. Loban, S.G. Drozdov.