From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RESPIRATORS (Latin respirare to breathe) — a kind of the filtering individual protection equipment of a respiratory organs (IPERO) of the person from influence of harmful gases, vapors and aerosols. River, as well as gas masks (see), are applied at the content in air of oxygen not less than 18% and at limited concentration of harmful substances in inhaled air.

Rubles are divided into three groups: antiaerosol (antidust) — for protection from aerosols (see); antigas — for protection against harmful vapors and gases; universal — for protection against vaporous harmful substances and aerosols (at their simultaneous presence at air).

In gas masks and universal R. purification of inhaled air from harmful Paro - and dopant gases is carried out with use of special sorbents (active coal, ion-exchange, etc. materials).

In antiaerosol and universal R. as the aerosol filter apply highly effective filter mediums (FPP-15, FPP-70), porous ionopoliuretan and other materials.

On R.'s design can represent the filtering half masks, at to-rykh a front part at the same time is also filter element (ShB-1 «Petal», U-2K, RP-K, etc.), or to be in the form of cartridge R. with filter element in the form of the cartridge attached one way or another to a half mask («Aster-2», F-62Sh, RU-60M, etc.).

Knitted obturators are used to prevention of irritation of face skin on a strip of a prileganiye of a half mask. Reliability of obturation (a dense prileganiye of edges of a half mask to the person) is provided with fitting and the corresponding adjustment by means of rubber or cotton tapes. R.'s design provides a possibility of use them with safety spectacles.

Endurances of R. depend on the modes (time) of their operation, microclimatic conditions of use, level of impurity of the air environment, category of weight of work and other conditions. Time of protective action of all filters of antidust respirators is defined by building-up period of resistance to a breath, a cut shall not exceed 100 Pas (10 mm w.g.).

Antiaerosol respirators

Fig. 1. A valveless antidust respirator like «Petal».
Fig. 2. Antidust respirator of U-2K.

Various types P. the Petal ShB-1 Models (fig. 1), «Petal-200» are produced, «Petal-40» and «Petal-5» are applied to protection of a respiratory organs against high-disperse aerosols at their concentration respectively to 200, 40 and 5 maximum allowable concentrations. These R. valveless in this connection it is not recommended to apply them at negative and high temperatures, the increased air humidity (at R.'s namokaniye there is a sharp increase in respiratory resistance and its efficiency decreases).

U-2K (fig. 2) represents the easy half mask made of two precoats: outside — from polyurethane foam and internal — from the material FPP-15. Has valves of a breath and exhalation. Is issued three sizes. Owing to insufficient obturation and bystry increase of resistance to a breath at high concentration of dust of such R. apply up to 25 mg/m at dust content of air 3  ; it is not recommended during the works connected with a big exercise stress is unsuitable for work with toxic and radioactive dust.

RP-K is intended for protection from large and finely divided dust (see) at its concentration in air to 100 mg/m3. The half mask of the device consists of elastic rubber of an original design with the reliable obturator. The river has replaceable filters: internal of the material FPP-15 and outside of foam rubber, to-ry it is regenerated by washing in water and drying. It is characterized by high performance, rather small initial respiratory resistance, does not cause irritation of face skin.

Fig. 3. Antidust respirator «Aster-2».
Fig. 4. «The filtering respirator of F-62Sh.

«Aster-2» (fig. 3) consists of a rubber half mask with two removable plastic cartridges, in to-rye corrugated replaceable filters from the material FPP-15 are enclosed. It is applied in all industries of the national economy to protection against dust of any dispersion.

F-62Sh (fig. 4) represents a half mask with one plastic boss, in to-ry the two-layer corrugated filter from the material FPP-15 — 1,5 is enclosed. High performance and a possibility of repeated replacement of filters allows to use such R. for protection against dust in mines, on mines and in other industries.

Universal and antigas respirators

Fig. 5. Universal respirator RU-60M.
Fig. 6. Antigas respirator of RPG-67.

The universal respirator RU-60M (fig. 5) is applied to protection of a respiratory organs against the vapors, gases and aerosols (dust, smoke, fog) which are at the same time present at air of a working zone. Consists of a rubber half mask with the knitted obturator and the replaceable filtering cartridges with special absorption and aerosol filters. Purpose of cartridges is presented in the table.

The antigas respirator of RPG-67 (fig. 6) on a design is similar to a respirator RU-60M; also it is completed with four brands of the filtering cartridges (And, In, CD and), but they have no antiaerosol filter and therefore do not protect from aerosols.

The universal respirator «Snowball KU» is also used for protection against acid gases and dust. Its advantage consists in insignificant restriction of the review, small respiratory resistance and a possibility of simple regeneration that allows to use filters repeatedly.


Bibliography: Gorodinsky S. M. Individual protection equipment for works with radioactive materials, M., 1979.

Yu. V. Novikov.