REZONANSNYE of the PHENOMENON in biological systems

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

The RESONANT PHENOMENA in biological systems — strengthening of response of any biological system to external periodic influence in the narrow frequency range determined by properties of the system. The term «resonance» designates increase of amplitude of fluctuations (electric, mechanical, sound, etc.) at external influence when the frequency of own fluctuations physical, physical and chemical, etc. systems matches the frequency of fluctuations of external influence.

River I. are eurysynusic in biological systems (see. Biological system ) also can be observed at the atomic, molecular, fabric, organismal and population levels. Conditionally they can be divided into two classes: structural R. I., caused by structure, a design of an object (system) or its components, and kinetic R. I., caused by kinetics of the biochemical and physiological processes proceeding in an object (system).

To structural R. I. mechanical resonances of the biological structures capable belong to own fluctuations, and resonant interaction of electromagnetic waves in the x-ray, optical, microwave and radio-frequency ranges, and also resonances of other types of radiation with the electronic, oscillating and rotary motions inherent to the molecules and atoms which are a part of biological objects. River I. at the atomic and molecular levels formed the basis of many physical methods of a research of biological systems (see. Spectroscopy , Spektrofotometriya , Electronic paramagnetic resonance , Nuclear magnetic resonance ). In particular, the atomic spectral analysis is applied to definition of sodium, potassium, calcium and other chemical elements in biological fabrics, in urine and blood. The molecular spectroscopy (i.e. a research of absorption spectrums, emissions, dispersion and a luminescence) found broad application in the majority of fields of biology, pharmacology and experimental medicine. On the basis of a method of nuclear magnetic resonance obtaining images of internal structures of an organism in the set sections became possible.

River I. at the fabric and organismal levels can be the cause of development various patol. states. So, mechanical resonances are observed in many bodies and structures of biological objects at vibration influence (see. Vibration ). Resonant fluctuations of human organs strengthen harmful effects of vibration if its range contains the frequencies close to resonant (see. Vibration disease ). Lungs and a difficult cell of the person who is in the field of variable pressure in this connection the resonance of lungs and a thorax can strengthen biological effect of influence of an infrasound possess resonant characteristics. River I. play also important role in formation of cavitational destructions at ultrasonic impact on biological objects (see. Cavitation ). At the same time resonant «swing» of gas microbubbles leads to generation of the intensive microflows defining finally many of observed biological effects ultrasound (see).

Kinetic R. I. are caused by existence of autokolebatelny processes in live systems at all levels of their organization: from separate biochemical processes to the whole organism and population (see. Biological system, an autoregulyation in biological system ). Frequencies of these autokolebaniye are defined by constants of speeds of the corresponding reactions, times of operation of regulatory chains. Periodic external influence with a frequency, the close or multiple frequency of autokolebaniye, can lead to resonant «swing». Kinetic resonances in biological systems, though are a little studied, however are of great interest to biology and medicine as many environmental factors, to the Crimea are sensitive biological objects, are periodic. Experimental confirmations of ability even of simple biochemical systems to the resonant answer are received. It is theoretically shown that enzymatic reaction

submitting to Mikhaelis's law (see. Kinetics of biological processes ) provided that enzyme potverzhen to synthesis and disintegration, has resonant properties at periodic change of speed of intake of substrate.

The probability of formation of R. I is high. at the physiological level as homeostatic processes in live systems cause the oscillatory nature of changes of many parameters of an organism, napr, temperatures, structure of uniform elements and concentration of various substances in blood, etc. In particular, it is known that biological effects of continuous external influence (ultrasonic, radiation, etc.) can differ from effects of pulse, periodic influence of the same dose.

From these positions formulation of the question about a role of frequency of therapeutic intervention and that frequency is possible, about a cut in an organism medicines are administered, besides, it is possible to assume that the choice of the necessary frequency in use of pharmacological means and holding physiotherapeutic procedures is capable to provide new medical effects. The specific inhibition or activation of the set fermental systems in an organism by means of selection of frequency of pulse modulation of ultrasound, UVCh is represented also probable (see. UVCh-therapy ) and other therapeutic factors for obtaining resonant effects. R.'s receiving I. at therapeutic influence can provide at the same time a dose decline of influence of an external factor.

R.'s studying I. it can be useful and for medical diagnosis since the changes of resonant frequencies observed in these or those fabrics and bodies can reflect the functional shifts accompanying patol. processes.

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A. P. Sarvazyan.