From Big Medical Encyclopedia

The REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, the Republic of South Africa — the state in the south of Africa. Borders on Namibia (the Republic of South Africa is occupied), Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho. In the West it is washed by waters of the Atlantic Ocean, in the South and the East — the Indian Ocean. The area is 1221 thousand Population of St. 33 million people (1983). The capital — Pretoria (923 thousand zhit.), a residence of parliament — Cape Town. In the administrative relation the country is divided into 4 provinces (Kapeksuto, Transvaal, Orange and Natal). Ofits. languages — Afrikaans and English.

The Republic of South Africa was proclaimed on May 31, 1961. The head of state — the president, the supreme legislative body is parliament, the right to choose and be elected in to-ry it is provided only to citizens of the European origin. Executive power belongs to the government headed by the prime minister. The most severe racial discrimination (apartheid) is brought to the level of state policy. About 87% of the area are usurped by white minority, on the remained lands 10 puppet states — to a bow of camps are formed.

The policy of racism and colonial expansion of the Republic of South Africa was repeatedly condemned by the UN and other international organizations. Since 1964 for carrying out policy of apartheid according to article 7 of the Charter of WHO the Republic of South Africa is disfranchised and right on

service. Progressive forces in the Republic of South Africa conduct long-term fight against the mode of apartheid.

The Republic of South Africa occupies the most part of the South African uplands limited to steep slopes of the Big Ledge more than 2000 km long. About a half of the territory is located at the height of 1000 — 1600 m. Climate tropical and subtropical. Landscapes of natural zones of savannas, light forests, semi-deserts and deserts are characteristic.

The Republic of South Africa — the developed industrialnoagrarny country. Wins first place in the capitalist world on stocks and gold mining, platinum, chromites, manganese ore, antimony, diamonds. Black coal, copper, iron ore, etc. are extracted. Manufacturing industry, mainly ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, the chemical, food and textile industry is developed. Intensively war industry develops. In agriculture wheat, corn, an ambercane, a sugarcane, tobacco, a citrus, vegetables, a cotton are grown up. The livestock production, especially sheep breeding is developed.

The main population (apprx. 75%) — Africans, mainly the people to a bow (the Zulu, a braid, Setswana, etc.). Persons of the European origin, preferential Afrikaners (borax) and British, make 15%, color (metises) — 8%, natives of Asia, generally Indians — about 2%. Average population density 25 people on 1, in some bantustana the St. 300 people on 1

The data of official statistics of the Republic of South Africa characterizing the state of health and medical service of various racial ethnic groups are extremely limited, about Africans of exact data is not published. In 1975 — 1980 according to the UN, in the country for 1000 of the population birth rate was 37,9, the general mortality 10,3, a natural increase 27,6. Child mortality among the African country people is 15 — 20 times higher, than among white. Average duration coming


lives in 1975 made 60,3 years (without the average duration of the forthcoming life of Africans, by calculations, did not exceed edge 34 years).

Among not white population of the Republic of South Africa prevail inf. diseases. Intestinal infections, tuberculosis (in 1975 incidence on 100 thousand population made among Africans 3120, among color 306,9, among natives of Asia 90,2, among white 18,1), measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, venereal diseases, trachoma, etc. are eurysynusic. The schistosomiasis is widespread in east regions of the country, in the territory of the Republic of South Africa there are natural centers of plague. According to WHO data, at 80% of school students - not white the diseases connected with insufficiency and frustration of food including a kwasiorkor, a pellagra, beriberi, a scurvy are registered.

The health system of the Republic of South Africa provides division of services according to a racial sign. In 1973 in the country was 788 institutions on 156 245 beds giving stationary help (64 beds on 10 thousand population). The extra hospital help was provided by out-patient departments of BC, private medical practitioners, in rural areas — the centers of health care and medical aid stations. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of the Republic of South Africa not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).

In 1977 in the country 12 253 doctors (4,5 for 10 thousand population), 70 045 nurses and midwifes, 14 003 their assistants worked. There are sharp distinctions in indicators of security with medical aid of different racial groups. So, 1 doctor fell on 400 people of the white population, 900 persons of an Asian origin, 6200 color, 44 000 Africans.

Training of doctors is carried out on medical f-takh of 7 universities. Persons of an Asian origin and color are allowed in two un-that, Africans — only in Durban by un-t. In 1975 the general release made 696 doctors, including the European origin 601, natives of Asia 65, color 21, Africans 9.

Researches in the field of medicine and health care are conducted by in-ta of occupational diseases, food, vaccines, etc., the centers of studying of problems of medical ecology and leukemia, department of microbiology, and also medical faculties of high fur boots and a number of clinics. Barnard's operation became widely known (Page N. Barnard) on heart transplantation.

Most research institutions are combined in the Southern

African council of medical researches and Southern African by in-t of medical researches. Bibliography: Southern African Respub

of a face, under the editorship of A.S. Pokrovsky, M., 1982; Demographic indicators of countries, p. 138, N. Y., 1982; Demographic yearbook 1980, N. Y., 1982; world health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984.

V. V. Fedorov.