REPELLENTS (Latin repellens, - ntis repellent, driving away) — the substances which are frightening off arthropods (insects, mites).
Rubles use for protection of people and animals against attack of arthropods for prevention of transmissible diseases (malaria, encephalitis, leyshmanioz, mosquito fever, etc.), for protection of people against attack of midges, and also clothes and furniture against the arthropods spoiling them (moths, bugs).
As R. apply the synthetic connections relating to different chemical groups to-rye possess the frightening-off action, various on duration. On the mechanism of action distinguish olfactory R. (the volatile substances operating at distance on nerve terminations of olfactory bodies of insects), contact (the drugs operating at contact of arthropods with a worked surface).
R. possessing at the same time olfactory and contact action — diethyltoluamide (DETA), a benzimine, carbooxide, rebemid, diethyl amide phenoxy-acetic to - you, benzoilpiperidin, an oxamat are most effective. Such R., as indalon, kyuzol, dibutil-and a dietilfta armor, dimetilkarbat, it is not recommended to apply in connection with their insufficient efficiency and the expressed toxicity to the person. Dimethyl phthalate is used as weak R. and solvent in repellent drugs.
Rubles in the form of creams, ointments, lotions apply on skin of open parts of a body with a thin coat, without rubbing; single treatment of open parts of a body requires 5 — 10 ml of lotion or 3 — 5 g of cream (ointment). Rubles in the form of solutions, water emulsions and aerosols process clothes, protecting screens, bed curtains, tents; for this purpose use method of impregnation or spraying from hand sprayers at the rate of 20 — 30 g of drug on 1 m 2 fabrics. For the purpose of protection of rooms against blood-sicking arthropods air vents, window leaves, windows, an entrance to a tent veil the grids or gauze curtains impregnated with River.
One application of R. on skin provides protection against stings of blood-sicking arthropods during 2 — 5 hours; the clothes (and also grids, etc.) impregnated with R. keep protective properties without washing during 2 — 3 weeks, processed from an aerosol can — during 1 — 7 days.
Duration of protective action of R. is defined by a dose of substance, number and a type of blood-sicking arthropods (their sensitivity to R. is not identical), meteorol. factors (wind, high temperature of air), working conditions of the people using R. (e.g., the physical work causing a potovydeleniye, etc.). Redipping of objects or processing of skin are made in process of loss of the frightening-off properties by them.
Compoundings of universal action, e.g. «Neorepellent» providing a combination of the frightening-off properties with insecticidal are developed (see. Insecticides ).
At R.'s use it is necessary to observe precautionary measures: not to apply them on the injured skin, not to allow hit on mucous membranes of eyes, lips, a nose. At emergence of irritation of skin of R. wash away water.
Bibliography: Smooth S. G. The means which are frightening off blood-sicking insects and ticks, M., 1964; D r e m about in and V. P., Markin V. V. and Quiet in and S. N. Protective action of the grids of Pavlovsky impregnated with various repellents in book: Probl. disinfection and sterilizations, under the editorship of V. I. Bashkov, page 258, M., 1975; With t and in r about in - with to and I am V. I., D r e m about in and V. P. and Kharitonov S. I. The repellent structures intended for drawing on skin Medical parazitol., t. 46, L'v 1, page 99, 1977; Kharitonova S. I. and Markina V. V. The repellent structures applied to processing of fabrics and protection of rooms against blood-sicking arthropods, in the same place, by t. 48, No. 2, page 55, 1979.
V. P. Dremova.