From Big Medical Encyclopedia

RENTGENOGRAMMETRIYA [rentgeno-(on a name B. X-ray) + Greek gramma of the devil, the image + metreo to measure, measure] — set of methods of quantitative assessment of the x-ray image.

The river found broad application in radioanatomies (see) and to radiodiagnosis (see).

Roentgenograms of a thorax in a straight line(s) and side projections with the principal linear dimensions applied to a rentgenogrammetriya of heart (rentgenokardiometriya): and + b — the diameter of heart, with — a longitudinal axis of heart, d — the slanting diameter of heart, e — the deep diameter of heart; the dotted line designated a midline of a body.

R. in radiodiagnosis of heart diseases is of great importance (rentgenokardiometriya). Measurement of quantitative characteristics of a shadow of heart on survey roentgenograms of a thorax allows to estimate objectively its linear sizes and volume (fig). The important part is assigned to R. in the analysis rentgenol. pictures of bone system. Quantitative criteria are developed for assessment of a shape of bones and for the characteristic of their joints. The river is an obligatory component in the analysis rentgenol. pictures of scoliosis, at specification of degree of its stability. R. is of great importance at rentgenol. research of a skull (rentgenotsefalometriya). The ruble allows to characterize a form, the sizes of a skull and its separate parts, relationship of a skull with cervical department of a backbone. The essential part is assigned to R. at diagnosis and treatment of zubo-maxillofacial anomalies. Important range of application of R. is the X-ray topometry — creation of the topografo-anatomic cards of cross-section of a body of the patient necessary at planning radiation therapy (see). The river is the cornerstone of x-ray pelvimetriya (see), allowing to define the main, important in obstetric practice, the sizes of a basin. The river finds also application at rentgenol. research of bilious ways and uric system, c. N of page, blood vessels.

Elements of the x-ray image measure or by means of the elementary geometrical devices — rulers, a protractor, a goniometer, the planimeter, or by processing and reconstruction of the image on special electronic analyzers of the areas, perimeters and volumes. In the latter case use two-chamber television system. One of cameras is directed to the roentgenogram, another — to the clean sheet of paper. Both images project on one television screen. Observing the x-ray image on the screen, the radiologist draws outlines of an object on paper so that its contours matched outlines of an object on the roentgenogram. On the basis of the received contour the electric signal for the automatic count system of geometrical characteristics of an object forms. Earlier applied method of orthoroentgenometry consisting in measurement of the x-ray image by means of the special device (orthodiagraph) directly at roentgenoscopy is left now, first of all because of its high beam loading.

At linear measurements on roentgenograms consider the fact that the x-ray image represents the central projection and, therefore, always is to some extent increased (see. Skialogiya ). For R. it is more preferable to carry out pictures during considerable removal of a source of radiation from an object (see. Telerentgenografiya ). Correction of results of measurement on projective increase is carried out by calculations by means of a special rule or by means of a simultaneous X-ray analysis of the studied object and a X-ray contrast ruler.

The river can be carried out on the single roentgenogram or on a series of roentgenograms. So, quantitative data processing of a contrast X-ray cinema research of heart allows to characterize a condition of valves and cameras of heart, a hemodynamics and sokratitelny function of a myocardium. The similar principle can be used in angiology at a hemadromometry, in an arthrology for studying of biomechanics of joints.

The perspective direction P. is made by optiko-hologram techniques of reproduction of spatial structure of the studied object, to-rye allow to synthesize its volume image and to receive a picture of its separate sections (see. Holography ). A certain value has a stereo-rentgenogrammetriya — the space quantitative characteristic of structure of an object determined by two pictures — a stereo pair (see. Stereorentgenografiya ).

Bibliography: Amosov I. S., etc. Perspectives of use of holography in a radiology, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., No. 4, page 84, 1981; B and y to both N I. A. and Mazurov A. I. X-ray television methods and means of processing of roentgenograms, Medical tekhn., No. 1, page 49, 1980; Walter S.A. and Chausov-s to and I am G. I. Comparison of accuracy of creation of topografoanatomichesky cards according to survey roentgenograms and tomograms, Medical radio-gramophones., t. 20, No. 9, page 22, 1975; Varnovitsky G. I., etc. Assessment of respiratory mobility of bronchial tubes by means of a radiological method of a research, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., No. 5, page 20, 1981; Grigoryan E. A., d and N about in G. of the Item and F r y-@ and V. A. Rentgeno's N a dosimetric method of quantitative definition of mineral component of bones, in the same place, No. 3, page 20; Lindenbraten L. D. and Naumov L. B. Methods of X-ray inspection of bodies and systems of the person, Tashkent, 1976; R and to and N And. X., Grigoryan E. A. and Azhegano-v and G. S. Rentgenokardiometriya, Tashkent, 1975, bibliogr.; The reference book on a radiology and radiology, under the editorship of G. A. Zedgenidze, page 90, M., 1972; Tikhonov K. B. and Fomin Yu. A. A role of densitometry in objectification of the radiological image at patients with various damages of lungs, Vestn. rentgenol. and radio-gramophones., No. 6, page 75, 1980; Feoktistov V. I. The x-ray image, its metric properties and their use in clinic, JL, 1966; Horoshilkina F. Ya. A telex-ray analysis in orthodontics, M., 1976; R u n g e H. u. a. Ermittlung des peri-pheren Knochenmineralgehaltes bei Nor-malenpersonen und Patienten mit Hilfe der Photonenabsorbtionstechnik am Radius, Radiologe, Bd 20, S. 505, 1980.

I. P. Korolyuk.