REFLEX THEORY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

REFLEX THEORY (Latin reflexus turned back, reflected) — one of the main theoretical concepts of physiology and medicine, according to a cut of reaction of an organism reflexes, i.e. responses to the influences of surrounding or internal environment of an organism mediated through the central nervous system represent.

Biol. value of reflex mechanisms consists in regulation of work of bodies and coordination of their functional interaction for the purpose of ensuring constancy of internal environment of an organism (see. Homeostasis ), preservations of its integrity and a possibility of adaptation to the changing conditions of the environment. Reflex activity of a nervous system provides functional unity of separate systems of an organism, and also the difficult, changeable and adaptive nature of interaction of an organism with the environment (see. Adaptation , Reflex , Self-control of physiological functions ).

In the methodological plan of R. of t. it is possible to consider as a special case of the philosophical category of reflection understood as property of material bodies to reproduce features of the objects interacting with them; River of t. generalizes materialistic ideas of functions of a nervous system and an origin of mentality of the person as highest form of reflection (see. Nervosism , Nervous system , Mentality ).

River of t. it was created in the course of centuries-old searches of a solution of the problem of soul and a body, mental and physiological.

Founder R. of t. usually consider R. Descartes though it is already possible to find rudiments of ideas of a brain in works of antique scientists as the central regulator of functions of an organism. R. Descartes's merit is creation of the general concept of the reflex (reflected) activity of a nervous system. In the views of mechanisms of so-called involuntary movements it proceeded from U. Garvey's doctrine about the movement of blood on vessels and representations of A. Vezaliya considering that nerves perform in relation to a brain the same function, as vessels in relation to heart. R. Descartes believed that the external irritation releases so-called animal spirits in nerves, to-rye move to a brain, and from there to muscles, changing their configuration and causing that their reduction. He emphasized that animal spirits have the material nature. Creating the theory of nervous activity, R. Descartes looked for a compromise between automatism of reflex reactions and complexity of real behavior that defined dualistic character of the concept.

Having extended the idea of causality to studying of the nature of motive acts, R. Descartes at the same time considered that the principle of a reflex entered by it into physiology can be used only for an explanation of simpler (involuntary) reactions, i.e. manifestations of that sphere of life activity, to-ruyu it after Aristotle carried to physics. R. Descartes connected more composite voluntary responses with effect of the highest non-material substance, or the soul relating to the sphere >of the metaphysics existing only at the person and comprehended by means of introspection or a reflection.

Since the second half of 17 century the significant contribution to R.'s development by t. such scientists as J. Swammerdam, T. Villizy, Zh. Lamet-tri, A. Galler, R. Whytt brought, And. Prokhask, etc. Were entered objective fiziol. concepts («incentive», «excitability», «sensitive and motive nerve fibrils», «nerve centers», «excitement», «influence of a nerve», «adequacy of reaction to an incentive», etc.), to-ry-mi use also modern researchers, the reflex nature of regulation of activity of various bodies is proved (reactions of a pupil to light, reductions of muscles of an inner ear on a sound, etc.) also the important conclusion is drawn that all acts, both any, and involuntary, are carried out by means of the same muscles, and process of reduction on the fiziol. to the nature it is identical both to those, and to others. The actual material which is saved up by this time allowed to specify fiziol. features of the reflex act: strict and constant dependence between the place of irritation and character of the motive answer, adequacy of response to force of the enclosed incentive, need of participation in reflex process of a certain nerve center, in Krom occurs transition of excitement from a sensory nerve to motive.

An important step in R.'s development by t. it was made at the beginning of 19 century Ch. Bell and F. Marangdi. They established that back roots of a spinal cord consist from sensitive, and lobbies — of motive nerve fibrils. Thus, theoretical conclusions about a reflex way were received the specific anatomic embodiment. Ch. Bell put forward also the provision on an important role of the return influences from muscles to a brain for exact regulation of movements, than laid the foundation for representations about chain to reflexes (see. Chain reflex ). M. Flurans on the basis of experiences with removal of a cerebellum and big cerebral hemispheres at pigeons came to a conclusion about the coordinating role of think-tanks. Hall (M. of Hall) for the first time used the term «nervous arch». For R.'s development by t. works Galya (M. of Gall) and I. Müller, and also a scientific discussion between them were of great importance. Gall conducted thin analytical researches of various reflexes. He developed system a wedge, the concepts based on idea of existence of a three-membered reflex arc (it entered this term), and applied them to an explanation of origins of paralyzes, paresis and other disturbances of a nervous system. I. Müller was engaged in studying of integral mechanisms of a reflex. He specified that such reflexes as reflexes of cough, vomiting and sneezing, have generalized character, though are caused by often strictly local irritations. He explained coordination of reflex activity with intervention of the consciousness connected with a brain and having essentially other organization. I. Müller made the significant contribution to studying of the nature of feelings. On a role of feelings in reflex activity there was a scientific polemic between Gall and I. Müller. Gall, in particular, believed that in reflex movements excitement of a receptor is not followed by feeling, a cut he considered a sign of the strong-willed act which does not have the reflex nature. I. Müller disputed this statement, proving that involuntary generalized reflexes are naturally connected with feeling. In essence it was the dispute on mechanisms of integrative manifestations of brain activity, a role of mentality in implementation of nervous acts which received a new boost in connection with E. Pflyuger's works to-ry showed that rather difficult coordination of movements can be observed also at the beheaded frog.

Despite great success in studying of a nervous system, the ideas of a reflex in many respects connected with development, to the middle of 19 century researchers could not approach an explanation of the most difficult manifestations of nervous activity from a position determinism (see). Researches continued to be conducted within the thin analysis of elementary reflex reactions, the explanation of the nature and laws of integrative nervous acts was carried out from positions of a mekhanitsizm or dualism.

A decisive step in R.'s development by t. it was made I. M. Sechenov. For the first time in the history of science I. M. Sechenov refused idealistic representations of the predecessors and provided systematic proofs that the brain in the most difficult manifestations works by the principle of a reflex. Thereby the boundary dividing till that time, apparently, absolutely various spheres — spheres physiological and mental was overcome. Opening of the phenomena of the central braking (1862) by I. M. Sechenov showed that the reflex act shall not come to an end with the movement. In 1863. And. M. Sechenov published the book «Reflexes of a Brain», in a cut drew a basic conclusion that «all acts of adult and unconscious life on a way of an origin an essence reflexes», i.e. were distributed by the mechanism of a reflex to mental sphere. I. M. Sechenov used harmonious and consecutive system of proofs. Main arguments of I. M. Sechenov following. All manifestations of sincere life are caused directly or indirectly by external influences and finally are implemented through the movements that makes related them with reflexes. The difficult temporary and power relations between an external stimulus, the mental act and the movement have a talk existence of reflexes with the strengthened and detained end. That the explanation of mental activity from positions of a reflex is too big simplification I. M. Sechenov disproved the main argument of the opponents the idea of development of mentality in process filo-and ontogenesis. And. M. Sechenov showed that, watching development of the child, it is possible to track as his undifferentiated reactions turn in arranged and highly specialized (including speech), and the direct answer is replaced delayed in time or the child studies it to suppress. Thus, mental processes are developed in time and space that combines mental processes with physiological.

Though I. M. Sechenov's ideas drew general attention, sharp objections spoke against an explanation of an origin of mentality from positions of materialism. I. M. Sechenov joined in scientific polemic with the opponents with unsurpassed skill. His main thought was developed in the works «To Whom and how to Develop Psychology» (1873), «Elements of a thought» (1878), etc.

At the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 centuries there were two main directions in studying of activity of a brain: continuation of works on a research of mechanisms of nervous activity and development of experimental psychology. Among works of the first direction the greatest attention is deserved by Ch. Sherrington works. This researcher made the significant contribution to studying of mechanisms of integration of motive reflexes, opened the law of positive and negative induction, formulated the provision on the general final way, having shown that idea of the isolated reflex arc is to some extent abstraction. The beginning of use of the methods of an electrophysiology at a research of a nervous system which played afterwards an important role in studying of work of a brain belongs to the same period.

Works in the field of experimental psychology were directed to studying fiziol. correlates of mentality. In spite of the fact that in these researches big actual material was saved up, creation of the general concept met the great difficulties considerably caused by dualistic approach to a solution of the problem of an origin of mentality within to-rogo physiological and mental phenomena were considered as proceeding in parallel and to a certain extent independently from each other (a so-called problem of psychophysical parallelism).

Development of science about a brain demanded elaboration of new approaches to studying of mechanisms of the highest nervous acts.

Decisive success in this direction is connected with a name of I. P. Pavlov who created essentially new method of physiological, pilot study of the most difficult manifestations of brain activity relating till that time to the mental sphere — a method of conditioned reflexes. I. P. Pavlov's doctrine about conditioned reflex (see) was a basis of the materialistic concept created by it about higher nervous activity (see).

I. P. Pavlov considered that century of N of is based on not numerous vital inborn instinctive reflexes (see), representing genetically fixed and hereditarily the passed-on experience of adaptive activity. However instinctive reflexes are able to provide adaptation of an organism to environmental conditions only at absolute constancy of the environment. On the basis of instinctive reflexes during life the conditioned reflexes which are reflexes of higher rank can be developed. Conditioned reflexes are not predetermined by inborn structure of nervous bonds, and developed in the course of individual life of an organism in the highest departments of a brain. Development of a conditioned reflex represents reorganization of the relations between nerve centers, thanks to a cut these relations begin to reflect real interaction between environmental factors, as creates an opportunity for more perfect adaptation of an organism by this Wednesday.

The answer of an organism to an external stimulus is determined, by I. P. Pavlov, by interaction of processes excitement (see) and braking (see). At the same time internal inhibition unlike external can be developed in the course of interaction of an organism with Wednesday that allows to carry out extremely exact and specialized reactions.

I. P. Pavlov put forward three principles of reflex activity, to-rye were completely applied to conditioned reflexes: the principle of a determinism, the principle of the analysis and synthesis and the principle of a priurochivaniye of dynamics to structure. The last situation (i.e. a confinedness of dynamics to structure) caused a scientific discussion between I. P. Pavlov, on the one hand, both I. R. Tarkhanov and V. M. Bekhterev — with another. The last claimed that conditioned reflexes can be carried rightfully to physiological, but not to mental phenomena on condition of their localization in certain areas of bark of hemispheres. The experiments made by I. P. Pavlov with an extirpation of certain sites of bark, as a result to-rykh connection of reflexes of various touch modalities with certain cortical areas was established, showed correctness of his views.

I. P. Pavlov's researches in the field of century of N of made a huge contribution to world science. The doctrine about functions was created cerebral cortex (see), the main patterns of its work, are put fiziol. bases of types of higher nervous activity (see), experimental neurosises, pharmacotherapy of nervous processes; the attempt of an explanation of a pathogeny of nervous and mental diseases from positions of the doctrine about conditioned reflexes is made.

Further development of R. of t. it is connected with I. P. Pavlov's doctrine about the second alarm system, edges it is inherent only in the person. Activity of the second alarm system, according to I. P. Pavlov, creates a possibility of abstraction and represents a basis of synthesis of collective experience and communication between people. At the same time she keeps all main properties of reflex activity and submits to its laws.

P. P. Pavlov's doctrine in essence predetermined the direction of further researches of mechanisms of the highest nervous acts.

Significant contribution to R.'s development by t. V. M. Bekhterev brought. It it was much made in studying of conduction paths back and a brain, a number of earlier unknown brain structures is described, communication of motive fields of a cerebral cortex with the acquired (learned) movements is shown, ana-tomo-physiological bases of balance and orientation in space are established, the technique of sochetatelnodvigatelny reflexes used by it and his pupils at treatment of a number of psychological diseases is developed.

An important role in examination fiziol. mechanisms of nervous activity played works of H. E. Vvedensky and A. A. Ukhtomsky. H. E. Vvedensky one of the first showed the rhythmic nature of nervous excitement and entered a concept labilities (see) for the description of functional mobility of a nervous system that allowed it to connect genetically processes of excitement and braking, to determine important consistent patterns of interaction of nerve centers. A. A. Ukhtomsky developed the doctrine about to a dominant (see) also developed the concept about assimilation of a rhythm as about one of the universal principles of activity of a nervous system. Works of these scientists exerted considerable impact on formation elektrofi-aiol. method of studying of mechanisms of brain activity. The big contribution was made also by E. Adrian, J. Ekkls, B. Katts, A. Hodzhkin, P. G. Kostiuk's works, etc. Intensive studying of work of a brain with the help elektrofiziol. methods led to discovery of the functional patterns which showed all complexity of interaction of brain structures in the course of complete activity.

Present stage of development of R. of t. it is characterized by further creative development of the doctrine of I. P. Pavlov about century of N of, organic compound of achievements of general physiology of a nervous system with the uslovnoreflektorny theory. On the basis of studying neyrofiziol. mechanisms of integral forms of purposeful activity P. K. Anokhin put forward the concept about functional system as to a basis of the brain organization of the behavioural act (see. Functional systems ). The functional system represents the difficult reflex act including a number of stages: afferent synthesis (see), decision-making, acceptor of results of action (see) etc. A basic component of system is existence of the return afferentation from results of action to the nerve centers organizing it, for the account the cut in case of a mismatch between the expected and real result will be organized restructuring of the nervous act.

E. A. Asratyan conducted detailed researches of brain mechanisms of classical and tool (motive) conditioned reflexes, idea of existence of a special class of the causal conditioned reflexes reflecting and fixing the cause and effect relations between external events is developed and proved are described and feed-backs between centers of instinctive and conditioned reflexes are studied in detail, the idea about a conditioned reflex as synthesis of two and more instinctive reflexes, etc. is stated. The doctrine about century of N of developed also in P. S. Kupalov, N. Yu. Belenkov, M. M. Hananashvili, A.S. Batuyev's works. Mechanisms of difficult behavior are studied by I. S. Beritashvili. Ideas of elementary rational activity of animals were developed by JI. V. Krushinsky. K. M. Bykov and V. N. Chernigovsky's works devoted to a research were important for distribution of the reflex and uslovnoreflektorny principle on regulation of activity of internals interoceptions (see). I. P. Pavlov's idea about a trophic innervation of fabrics gained further creative development in works of JI. A. Orbeli, A. D. Speransky, and also V. A. Govyrin, G. N. Krzhanovsky and Ya. I. Azhipa. It formed a basis for creation of methods of reflex stimulation of processes of recovery in bodies and body tissues.

Important researches of mechanisms of uslovnoreflektorny activity were conducted by M. N. Livanov. Created by it elektroentsefaloskop allowed to register at the same time electric activity to hundred sites of a brain. It was shown that at the heart of education and reproduction of conditioned reflexes the space synchronization of electric activity of the respective sites of bark and subcrustal educations reflecting process of equalizing of lability of these structures lies.

Role of the mechanism of a dominant in formation of uslovnoreflektorny activity, and also value of slow fluctuations of electric activity of a brain in the organization of brain processes are described by V. S. Rusinov.

Modern achievements in the field of studying of function of subcrustal structures of a brain can be considered as confirmation and development of the concept of I. P. Pavlov on kortikosubkortikalny relationship. The important contribution into the system of knowledge of a brain was entered by opening of functions of a so-called reticular formation of a brain. In works of X. Meguna and J. Moruzzi existence in a brainstem of the centers regulating a tone of both underlying, and overlying departments of a brain is shown. The reticular formation oblong and a mesencephalon, forming together with various kernels of a thalamus and a hypothalamus the ascending activating system is among such centers (see. Reticular formation). This system received also the name of nonspecific system of the ascending projections. The nonspecific system receives an impulsation from fibers of various modalities, has rather diffusion projection in a cerebral cortex and considerably defines its tone. It was shown later that, in turn, the tone of a reticular formation is regulated by the descending cortical influences.

Structurally functional features of brain activity are described by O. S. Adrianov. In particular, he carried out studying of brain projections in primary and associative cortical zones, and also the nerve pathways connecting departments of new and limbic bark with subcrustal educations.

I. P. Pavlov's idea of a reinforcement as about a decisive factor of formation of a conditioned reflex confirmed opening by Olds and Milner (J. Olds, P. Milner) the so-called supporting structures of a brain (see. Self-stimulation ). It is established that the direct electric irritation of these brain educations causing positive and negative emotional states can form a basis for development of conditioned reflexes.

Big contribution to studying of neurophysiological mechanisms emotions (see) and their roles in a reinforcement of uslovnoreflektorny activity it is made P. V. Simonov. Developing I. P. Pavlov's idea about a dynamic stereotype, P. V. Simonov created the information theory of emotions, according to a cut the sign and degree of emotional pressure are defined by force of requirement and probability of its satisfaction. This probability, in turn, is defined by a difference between information, predictively requirement, necessary for satisfaction, and information which is really available for the subject. Important researches of neurochemical bases of activity of a brain were conducted by E. M. K rep, H. Hyden, A. V. Valjdman, R. I. Kruglikov, R. Yu. Ilyyuchenko, I. P. Anokhina.

Fiziol. mechanisms motivations (see), and also role of emotional stress (see) in a pathogeny of psychosomatic diseases are studied by K. V. Sudakov in detail. The theory of functional system of P. K. Anokhin, and also the principle of «quantization» of reactions of an organism offered by K. V. Sudakov were applied by it to studying fiziol. reactions in the course of production activity of the person.

Researches of century of N of of the person confirmed, added and expanded I. P. Pavlov's ideas of the second alarm system (A. G. Ivanov-Smolensk, I. V. Strelchuk, M. M. Koltsova's work). Data on physiology of a human brain showed complexity of localization of functions and plurality of structures of various levels of a brain participating in ensuring its activity.

I. P. Pavlov considered an ultimate goal of the doctrine knowledge fiziol. mechanisms of mentality. He saw a way to the solution of this problem in consecutive studying of objective manifestations and laws of brain activity. At the same time I. P. Pavlov did not deny an originality of the mental sphere as highest form of manifestations of activity of a brain and need of the scientific analysis of subjective experiences. I. P. Pavlov said that the science will move the obtained objective data, being guided by similarity or identity of external manifestations, sooner or later and to our subjective world and by that at once and will brightly light our so mysterious nature, will understand the mechanism and vital sense of what occupies the person more and more — his consciousness, torments of his consciousness (I. P. Pavlov. Half-N of SOBR. soch., t. III, book 1, 1951, p. 39).

Achievements of physiology of the last decades, its advance on the way laid by I. P. Pavlov allowed to put a problem of studying of physiological bases of mental activity. The problem of a ratio of a brain and mentality differs in considerable complexity, it has not only natural-science, but also philosophical value. For understanding of the nature of mental activity the provision of dialectic materialism about reflective character of mentality is basic, that mental activity, being a product of a brain, reflects not brain processes, and through brain processes the outside world, objective reality. At the same time mental reflection is not passive process, it has active character. According to V. I. Lenin, «consciousness of the person not only reflects the objective world, but also creates it» (V. I. Lenin. Half-N of SOBR. soch., t. 29, p. 194). Ideas of reflective character of mentality and its active, «creative» influence on the world around directly connect the mental sphere with the principles of a reflex and the main ideas of R. of t.

For the directed studying of mechanisms of mentality it is necessary to know in what qualitative difference of mental processes from simpler manifestations of activity of a brain. This difference is considerably connected with a phenomenon of human consciousness. Consciousness (see) represents the highest form of reflection, at a cut the outside world is perceived as something separate of the subject. Consciousness is closely connected with speech (see) also arises in the course of communication between people.

Fiziol. mechanisms of mentality are studied by psychophysiology. Founders of this section of physiology by right can be considered I. M. Sechenova and I. P. Pavlov, to-rye created its theoretical basis and specified solutions of the problems facing it on the basis of development of the idea of a reflex. The modern psychophysiology has a wide arsenal of methodical receptions. Along with method of conditioned reflexes record of electric activity of a brain, including a method of evoked potentials and registration of activity of nervous cells, a research of a brain blood-groove, neurochemical shifts, etc. is widely used. Also the methods of modern psychology and psychophysis allowing to estimate quantitatively a condition of certain mental processes are applied. The analysis of the obtained data, as a rule, is carried out by means of the COMPUTER.

The psychophysiology is of great importance also for the solution of a number of problems of interaction of the person and the equipment, work of the person in extreme conditions. It is important also for Poznan I the nature of mental diseases, developments died their diagnoses and treatments. P. K. Anokhin, M. N. Livanov, V. S. Rusinov, N. P. Bekhtereva, R. A. Luriya, A. M. Ivanitsky, E intensively were engaged in studying of brain mechanisms of mentality. N. Sokolov, E. A. Kostandov, K. K. Monakhov, etc. Abroad in this the field of science the significant contribution was made by U. Penfild, G. Dzhasper, U. Walter, Pribram (To. Pribram), etc.

The importance for knowledge of the brain processes which are the cornerstone of mental activity had studying of specialization of hemispheres and mezhpolusharny interaction. R. W. Sperry and Gadzaniga (M. of Gazzaniga) investigated functions of a brain at persons, the Crimea for the purpose of treatment of epilepsy operation on section of a corpus collosum was performed. Showed to such patients the image of any subject separately for the right and left eye (the image at the same time came respectively to the left or right cerebral hemisphere). Irrespective of the fact which an eye of the patient saw the image, he could then naoshchup choose this subject among some other. However if the image came to the right hemisphere, the person could not call a subject and explain why he chose it. At receipt of information in the left hemisphere investigated could give the full verbal account on the actions. Further researches showed that specialization of hemispheres is shown also that the left hemisphere is preferential connected with abstract thinking and verbal and logical operations, and right — with intuitive thinking, the analysis of a form of objects and space orientation. Mental activity — result of the coordinated work of both hemispheres.

Big contribution to studying of the morfofunktsionalny organization fiziol. ensuring mental activity of the person it is brought by N. P. Bekhtereva with sotr. In their researches used diagnostic and therapeutic methods of stimulation of a brain of the person with use of chronically implanted electrodes, and also the analysis of the bioelectric activity of a brain which is taken away by means of these electrodes. New data on a role of subcrustal structures of a brain of the person in various emotional reactions, the phenomena of memory, and also about the principles of coding of semantic information in pulse activity of neurons were obtained. On the basis of the conducted researches the important provision on ensuring mental function with system of links with various degree of rigidity was put forward. Rigid links of system are a necessary element of ensuring this mental function while flexible links are connected to system only under certain conditions. The last structures are characterized also by multivalence and can take part in ensuring various mental functions.

With improvement of the stereotaxic equipment allowing to make local electric stimulation of various formations of a brain of the person in a wedge, practice new ways of treatment various patol were outlined. processes. So, as a result of pointed electrostimulations it was succeeded to stop a phantom pain syndrome at patients, to cause improvement of the state of health in patients with hyperkinesias, to stop acute and chronic phobias.

Ideas of very difficult and multi-level nature of the brain processes providing mental activity of mentality as result of brain integration received confirmation and during the studying fiziol. mechanisms of perception. In A. M. Ivanitsky's researches it was shown that perception (see) as mental function represents much more complex process, than simple receipt of nervous impulses from receptors in projective bark. Creation of a subjective image is connected with synthesis of all information on an irritant both arriving from sense bodys, and which is stored in memory. Activation of traces memories (see) occurs on the mechanism of a conditioned reflex. On the basis of last experience the importance of the operating irritant is defined. Information on the importance of an incentive is returned then to the place of primary projection of an incentive where merges with traces of touch excitement. This mometst also corresponds to emergence of feeling. Perception is based, thus, on difficult interaction of projective and associative bark, and also the subcrustal centers of emotions and motivations. Mental reflection arises on a joint of an external and internal, cash stimulus and memory. The idea about mentality as brain integration is important also for understanding of the nature of mental diseases, a pathogeny to-rykh as show the conducted researches, is considerably connected with disturbance of interaction between separate links of the system providing mental function.

Summing up modern ideas of the nature of mentality, one may say, that the difference between simpler reactions and reactions at the psrkhkhichesky level, is that in the first case only the necessary minimum of brain structures is involved in reaction, and practically all brain participates in the second in processing of the arrived information that is provided with difficult interaction of its major departments and the special organization of information flows in a brain. However in either case the principle of a reflex, i.e. the reflected action, remains invariable. Complication happens hl. obr. in the central link of a reflex. The increasing value is gained by such factors as memory, emotion and personal motives. It allows an organism to build difficult behavior, a cut forms on the basis of all last experience, both individual, and collective.

It is also necessary to emphasize that in these perfect functions the reflex keeps the value not only as the general principle of complete reaction of an organism, but also as elementary unit of nervous action, to-rykh is based on synthesis any, most difficult behavior. The dialectic law of transition of quantity to quality is fully shown in evolution of brain functions. On the basis of increase in number, and complication of the organization of elementary units there are high-quality shifts, выражающ^ес^ in more irregular shapes of reflection of reality and the providing more perfect behavior.

River of t., generalizing modern ideas of work of a brain, is the leading concept of physiology of a nervous system. It is closely connected with materialistic understanding of continuous communication of an organism with the environment, on the one hand, and active, creative influence of an organism for this Wednesday, with another. It defines value P. of t. as one of fundamental theoretical generalizations of modern biology and medicine.




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